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Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan   Correct Toko Kinpu   From Gyokudo   Japan Theme   Qinci 首頁
Japanese Handbooks in Qinqu Jicheng 1
The three handbooks in QQJC Vol. 12 (compare the "Correct Toko Kinpu")
The focus below is on the first, the Qin Handbook with Lyrics and Pronunciation
日本琴譜目錄
又看東皋琴譜正本
Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.12  

Japanese qin players have produced numerous handbooks over the years. Most of the important early ones are mentioned in Guqin Handbooks Published in Japan, with some information on later ones also given on that page. Included in Qinqu Jicheng Volume XII are reprints of three of the most important handbooks. All are said to contain the music passed down by 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou (1639-1695), who arrived in Japan from Hangzhou in 1676. There, as the monk 心越 Shin-etsu, he became the source of virtually all the qin music played in Japan until the 20th century (the fact that the actual music survived only in handbooks that survive from after he died perhaps led to the inclusion of some extra pieces).

The three Japanese handbooks published in QQJC XII (with 38+4+8 = 50 distinct pieces) are as follows:

  1. 和文注音琴譜 Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu (Wabun Chuyin Kinpu), <1676   (38 pieces; Appendix I)
  2. &
  3. 東皋琴譜 Donggao Qinpu (Toko Kinpu), 1709?

Until 2016 my work on qin melodies in Japan was confined to the above volumes. However, in 2016 I acquired information about two other important sources:

The music in those two handbooks are dicussed separately. Meanwhile, the present page outlines the contents of the three handbooks published in Volume XII of Qinqu Jicheng; this should then be compared against the details in the "Correct Toko Kinpu".

Because the three handbooks have considerable overlap in content, these contents are given here as three appendices on a single page rather than separately.  
-------------------------------------------------------

Appendix I

Wabun Chuin Kinpu (?; <1676?)
和文注音琴譜
Hewen Zhu(yin) Qinpu
Qinqu Jicheng, Vol. XII/167 - 241
"Qin Handbook with Lyrics and Pronunciation"

38 melodies (34-1st); all with lyrics, hence the title. Except for the Fusang cao, these were intended to represent the melodies 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou took from Hangzhou to Japan in 1676 (though the fact that it survived only in a later edition perhaps led to the inclusion of some extra pieces); there, as the monk 心越 Shin-etsu (and other names), he taught many students. Many handbooks following Shin-Etsu's tradition were published later in Japan, generally with the title Toko Kinpu.

The volume used for QQJC, now in the Shanghai Library, was brought from Japan around 1900 by Zhou Qingyun. In his QSCM (#321) Zhou Qingyun writes that the book, which he calls 和文注琴譜 Hewen Zhu Qinpu, is a hand copy said at one time to have been in 桂川家藏 the collection of the Katsuragawa family.4 He adds that 每譜前有桂川家藏印記 in front of each melody was the Katsuragawa family seal. The copy in QQJC has the seal marks only in front of a few of these.5 This brings up the question of whether Zhou may have made his own copy, or had someone make a copy, from the original.

Based on the information in Yang (p.59 & 62), of the versions he examined the one closest to Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu (which Yang refers to as Hewen Zhu Qinpu) seems to have been based initially on a third edition of Katsuragawa, "compiled by Kojima Hyaku’ichi 兒島百一 (1778‐1835) in early nineteenth century", with 46 pieces in three volumes. If so, the edition in QQJC was considerably edited, in particularly missing melodies from the latter half of Toko Kinpu Zhengben (referred to below as simply "the Zhengben").

Zha Fuxi in his preface ascribes the date of this collection to "before 1676". He also says that it was compiled by the monk Toko Etsu. This must be based on a belief that the melodies were brought to Japan by the Buddhist monk Jiang Xingchou when he arrived there from Hangzhou in 1676; in Japan he was known as Toko Etsu (also other names).

However, as the QQJC preface itself points out, in this handbook most of the melodies have indications that either Shin-Etsu himself or one of his students revised them.6 In addition, the handbook itself labels two of the melodies (#34 and #35) as 扶桑操 Fusang Cao, Japanese melodies (Fusang was an old name for Japan).7

The evidence suggesting that many of these melodies were at that time actively played in China is largely circumstantial. Although very few of them can be found in handbooks published in China, there were probably many qin songs that were sung but, though perhaps hand-copied, never published. And before Jiang Xingchou arrived in Japan and became Shin-Etsu, he was active as a qin player in both Nanjing and Hangzhou. Nanjing was a center of the so-called Jiang School, which emphasized qin melodies with lyrics.

Cipai (lyrics that use the structures of old ci poems)

Moved; cipai deserve special mention here, as qin handbooks in Japan have many.
  • Zui Weng Cao; qin only (XII/190)

    Melodies published in both China and Japan

    So far I have found the following connections between the melodies published in Japan and melodies surviving in handbooks produced in China.

    See also Yu Qiao Wenda and Yangguan Sandie below under the Toko Kinpu.
     

      Table of Contents for Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu

    1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/167; video at Ryoanji Temple Rock Garden, Kyoto, dubbed with music)
      No commentary; version of the beginners' melody aka 操縵引 Caoman Yin and 仙翁操 Xianweng Cao;
      Music and lyrics unattributed; lyrics begin "得道仙翁,得道陳摶仙翁,得道陳摶仙翁,...." (not sung on video)

      Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

    2. 清平樂 Qingping Yue; subtitle: 七夕 Qi Xi (7th night [of the 7th month]; XII/168)
      Qingping Yue is the name of a 詞牌 cipai with 46 characters (as here: 4,5;7,6. 6,6;6,6). For the version in Japanese handbooks the lyrics ("The magpie bridge forms....") by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu concern the legend of the cowherd and weaving girl (牛郎織女), as follows:

      鵲橋成了,猶限歡娛少。爭似秦樓瓜菓早,盡向斯時乞巧。
      凝眸斗渚迢遙,浮槎定擬今宵。誰識天涯此際,教人暗裏魂銷。   (translation)

    3. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (Waves Scouring the Sands); subtitle 懷舊 Huai Jiu (Yearning for the past; XII/169)
      Zha Guide 32/--/471: 1618 (only VIII/342 [1-string qin] and Japan [same lyrics, different music]). Also transcribed in Wang Di (#30, pp.103)
      Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu begin "把酒祝東風,且共從容...." (cipai: [5,4;7;7,4.] x 2);

    4. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (East Wind of Qi Exerts Strength); subtitle: 除夜 Chuye (New Year's Eve; XII/170)
      Zha Guide 34/--/502 only in Japan (not 東風齋著力 Dongfeng Zhai Zhuo Li.). 14827.323 name of a
      cipai: 詞牌名(詞譜)調見草堂詩餘,胡浩然除夕詞也。按禮記月令,孟春之月東風解凉。又唐人曹松《除夜詩》:『殘臘即又盡,東風應漸聞。』故云《東風齊著力》。 The second poem mentioned, by 曹松 Cao Song, is in the form (5+5) x 4.
      Lyrics by 胡浩然 Hu Haoran (Song dynasty; included in 全宋詞)
      Second half seems to begin with a double slide left over from first half: mistake?

      殘臘收寒,三陽初轉,已換年華。
            東君律管,迤邐到山家。
      處處笙簧鼎沸,會佳宴、坐列仙娃。
            花叢裏,金爐滿爇,龍麝煙斜。

      此景轉堪誇,深意祝、壽山福海增加。
            玉觥滿泛,且莫厭流霞。
      幸有迎春壽酒,銀瓶浸、幾朵梅花。
            休辭醉,園林秀色,百草萌芽。

      4,4,4; 4,5; 6,7; 3,4,4.
      5,3,6; 4,5; 6,7; 3,4,4.

      Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

    5. 三才引 San Cai Yin (XII/172)
      Zha Guide 25/208/502 has one other,
      1559 (no lyrics; unrelated melody)
      Lyrics identified as from from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 25 (ctext.org: most of #27 then end of #32; Legge 26, Confucius, Dover, p.420-21 and 429); see Wang Yiheng (?)

      天地之道,可一言而盡也。
      其為物不二,則其生物不測。
      天地之道,博也厚也,高也明也,悠也久也。
      今夫天,斯昭昭之多,及其無窮也,日月星辰系焉,萬物覆焉。
      今夫地,一撮土之多,及其廣厚,載華岳而不重,振河海而不泄,萬物載焉。
      今夫山,一拳石之多,及其廣大,草木生之,禽獸居之,寶藏興焉。
      今夫水,一勺之多,及其不測,黿鼉、蛟龍、魚鱉生焉,貨財殖焉。

      (泛起)凡有血氣者,莫不尊親,故曰配天。

    6. 大哉引 Dazai Yin (XII/174)
      Zha Guide 34/--/502 only in Japan
      Lyrics are from 中庸 Doctrine of the Mean, Chapter 27 (
      ctext.org #28; Legge, Confucius, Dover, p.422-3); again see Wang Yiheng (?)

      大哉,聖人之道!
      洋洋乎發育萬物,峻極于天。
      優優大哉!
      禮儀三百,威儀三千,待其人然後行。
      故曰:
      苟不至德,至道不凝焉。
      故君子尊德性而道問學,致廣大而盡精微,極高明而中庸。
      溫故而知新,敦厚以崇禮。
      是故居上不驕,為下不倍;
      國有道,其言足以興,國無道,其默足以容。
        尾:《詩》曰:(泛起)
        「既明且哲,以保其身。」
        其此之謂與!

      For comment on the Doctrine of the Mean and Zen Buddhism see Hsueh-Li Cheng

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/177)
      Zha Guide 34/260/503 lists it here and in 1840 (XXIII/347)
      See also below; "聖湖野樵訂 Edited by Seiko ...."(?)
      Lyrics are a poem in YFSJ (p.1180) attributed to 漢武帝 Han emperor Wudi (辭 not 詞)

      秋風起兮白雲飛,草木黃落兮雁南歸。....

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #44 (pp.109-110).

    8. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/178)
      Zha Guide 13/145/251; main intro and translation at
      1511
      Lyrics by 陶淵明 Tao Yuanming; similar music to the common ones, but divided into sections as in Taigu Zhengyin Qinpu (Yangchun Tang Qinpu, 1611; VII/455)

      歸去來兮....

    9. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/185)
      Zha Guide 34/--/503; only in Japan
      Lyrics by 李青蓮 i.e., 李白 Li Bai.

      長安一片月,萬戶擣衣聲。
      秋風吹不盡,總是玉關情。
      何日平胡虜,良人罷遠征。
      Also transcribed in Wang Di (#36, pp.101)

    10. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (Secluded Cascading Spring; XII/186)
      Zha Guide 34/260/504: only Japan and the musically unrelated 1739 (XVIII/161)
      Lyrics by Li Bai;
      further detail.

    11. 久別離 Jiu Bieli (XII/188)
      Zha Guide 35/--/504: only in Japan; 122.23 jiu bie: long separated
      Same as Jiu Libie
      below; lyrics by Li Bai

      別來幾春未還家。
      玉窗五見櫻桃花。
      況有錦字書。
      開緘使人嗟。
      至此腸斷彼心絕。
      雲鬟綠鬢罷梳結。
      愁如回飆亂白雪。 (飆 here written 一 over 儿 with 百 inside plus 炎 at right)
      去年寄書報陽台。
      今年寄書重相催。
      東風兮東風。
      為我吹行雲使西來。
      待來竟不來。
      落花寂寂委青苔。

      Transcribed inWang Di, #43 (pp.107-8).

    12. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (XII/190)
      Zha Guide 16/--/362 醉翁亭 (also 醉翁吟, e.g, 1539) lists various versions with differing music and sometimes differing lyrics (details)
      The lyrics of Sections 1 and 2 are, as in 1539, by Su Dongpo; Section 3

      1. 琅然清圓,誰彈響空山無言?
        惟翁醉中知其天。
        月明,風露娟娟,人未眠。
        荷蕢過山前,
        曰﹕有心也哉此賢。

      2. 醉翁嘯詠,聲和流泉。
        醉翁去後,空有朝禽、夜猿。
        山有時而童顛,水有時而回川,
        思翁無歲年。
        翁今為飛仙,此意在人間﹕
        試聽徽外三兩絃。

      3. 琴在手,月在天,
        彈琴招明月,明月落我絃。
        清風月明人亦仙,
        曲罷月落風自然,
        曲罷月落風自然。

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #46 (pp.111-2).

    13. 八聲甘州 Basheng Ganzhou; subtitle: 送人 Song Ren (Seeing off a Friend; XII/192)
      Zha Guide 35/--/504: only here; 甘州 Ganzhou is today called 張掖 Zhangye (Gansu province)
      Lyrics by
      Su Dongpo; translation from Florence Chia-Ying Yeh, Seven Lectures on Wang Guowei’s Renjian Cihua, Routledge, 2019.

      有情風萬里捲潮來,無情送潮歸。
      問錢塘江上,西湖浦口,幾度斜暉?       (elsewhere "西興浦口")
      不用思量今古,俯仰昔人非。
      誰似東坡老,白首忘機。

      記取西湖西畔,正春山好處,空翠煙霏。
      算詩人相得,如我與君稀。
      約它年、東還海道,願謝公雅志莫相違。
      西州路,不應回首,為我沾衣。

      An affectionate wind, Rolls up the tide from 10,000 miles away,
              Then, unfeeling, sends it back.
      I ask: On the Qiantang River, In the bay at Xixing,
              How many times have we seen the slanting beams of the setting sun?
      No need contemplating the present and past,
              In one instant those I knew are all gone.
      Who is like the old Dongpo?
              With a head of white hair, yet remaining carefree?

      Remember West Lake and its Western Embankment,
              Just when in spring, the mountains were at their most beautiful. Skyward green, a misty haze.
      For two poets to understand each other
              as do you and I is rare.
      I promise that one year, I will return east by way of the sea;
              I hope this Councilor Xie will not have to go back on his fine intention.
      On the Xizhou Road, you mustn't look back
              And wet your collar with tears for me.

      There is also a poem in this form by Liu Yong. On the other hand, the song of this title in the opera Xi Xiang Ji seems to have quite a different structure.

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #49 (pp.115/6).

    14. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian; subtitle: 醉翁亭 Zui Weng Ting (Old Toper's Pavilion; XII/194)
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; Ruihe Xian (21606.133) is a cipai from a 周邦彥
      Zhou Bangyan Northern Song poem (compare Qiliang Fan as well as Ruilong Yin).
      The lyrics here are by 黃山谷 Huang Shan'gu (i.e., Huang Tingjian), retelling Ouyang Xiu's 醉翁亭記 Record of the Old Toper's Pavilion
      Although it reads like a narrative, it does follow a version of the ci pattern.

      環滁皆山也,望蔚然深秀....

    15. 鳳凰台上憶吹簫 Fenghuangtaishang Yi Chui Xiao; subtitle: 離別 Li Bie (Departure; XII/196)
      43079.41: On Phoenix Terrace Recalling the Playing of a Flute; no mention of cipai
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here, adding "different from 1609" (Gui Yuan Cao), which has the same lyrics but a different melody
      The title is a cipai; the lyrics by 李易南, i.e., 李清照 Li Qingzhao (1084 - ca.1151), are about her absent lover:

      香冷金猊,被翻紅浪,起來慵自梳頭....

    16. 太平引 Taiping Yin (XII/198)
      Zha Guide 35/--/505: only here; 5965.xxx; an
      old title
      Transcribed in Wang Di (#41, pp.105; first verse only)
      The piece has two verses; both have 40 characters but their phrasing is different

      1. By 賀東山 He Dongshan (賀鑄 He Zhu 1052 - 1125; from his 豔聲歌 [太平時七首] Yan Sheng Ge [7 pieces from Taiping Shi]; compare Lu You):
        蜀錦塵香生襪羅,小婆娑。個儂無賴動人多,是橫波。樓角雲開風卷幕,月侵河。纖纖持酒艷聲歌,奈情何。
      2. By 辛棄疾 Xin Qiji (d.1198); from his《昭君怨·長記瀟湘秋晚》 Zhaojun Yuan
        長記瀟湘秋晚,歌舞橘洲人散。走馬月明中,折芙蓉。今日西山南浦,畫棟珠簾雲雨。 風景不爭多,奈愁何。

    17. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (Cranes Pierce the Clouds; XII/200)
      Zha Guide 35/--/506, only in Japan; 48157.42 and 12/1145 have only 鶴沖天 He Chong Tian (see in
      1511): Cranes Pierce the Heavens
        (or A Crane Pierces the Heavens, i.e., a person becomes an immortal in the form of a crane);
      Lyrics, by 和凝 He Ning (3600.308; 10th c), are verse 2 of his poem in cipai 春光好 Chun Guang Hao
        (一名愁倚欄令; verse 1 had almost the same structure), as follows (from 全唐詩,卷893_29):

      蘋葉軟,杏花明,畫船輕。雙浴鴛鴦出綠汀,棹歌聲。
      春水無風無浪,春天半雨半晴。 紅粉相隨南浦晚,幾含情。

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #53, p.125.

    18. 南浦月 Nan Pu Yue (XII/201)
      Zha Guide 35/--/506; only here; 2798.371 Nanpu only (south bank;
      cipai name; name of various rivers)
      Lyrics by 何籀 He Zhou (Bio/xxx; Song); in 四庫全書 under 點降脣 Dian Jiang Chun (49065.47: a cipai; see also Zha Guide). Lyrics here have same the structure as in 1682 (滴瀝新晴,高秋雲薄渾如削....) as well as in Cao Tang Yin #2, below. The opera Xi Xiang Ji has several songs of this title with shortened versions of the lyrical pattern. Nan Pu Yue is also transcribed in Wang Di (#40, pp.104). The lyrics are,

      (Compare structure of 點絳唇)
      鶯踏花翻,亂紅堆徑無人掃。 (鶯 is elsewhere written 鸎)
      杜鵑來了,梅子枝頭小。
      撥盡琵琶,總是相思調。
      知音少。
      暗傷懷抱,門掩青春老。

    19. 飛瓊吟 Fei Qiong Yin (XII/202)
      Zha Guide 24/203/506 has two, the other an unrelated melody from
      1559 with no lyrics
      The literal meaning of fei qiong is (water looking like pieces of) flying red jade. 44974.336 飛瓊 says Feiqiong is the name of a female immortal at the time of Han Wudi; the introduction in 1559 suggests the literal meaning is intended. Here, however, I am not sure how this connects to the musically unrelated present melody, which is set to lyrics from one of the Three Poems on Snow (雪三首 Xue San Shou) by 林和靖 Lin Heqing, i.e., 林逋 Lin Bu:

      瓦溝如粉疊樓腰,高會誰能解酒貂。
      清夾曉林初落索,冷和春雨轉飄蕭。
      堪憐雀避來閒地,最愛僧衝過短橋。
      獨有閉關孤隱者,一軒貧病在顏瓢。

    20. 梅花 Mei Hua (also called 瑤芳引 Yao Fang Yin; XII/203)
      Further detail here including my recording together with the lyrics by Lin Bu.

      山園小梅 Shan Yuan Xiao Mei (How Plum Flowers Embarrass a Garden)

      眾芳搖落獨鮮妍,佔盡風情向小園。 (鮮 elsewhere 暄)
      疏影橫斜水清淺,暗香浮動月黃昏。
      霜禽欲下先偷眼,粉蝶如知合斷魂。
      幸有微吟可相狎,不須檀板共金尊。

      (Listen also to Mei Shao Yue)

    21. 偶成 Ou Cheng (short for 秋日偶成 Qiuri Oucheng: Stray Thoughts on an Autumn Day; XII/204)
      Further detail
      here; Only in Japan; melody clearly related to #20; lyrics are a poem by Cheng Hao:

      閑來無事不從容,睡覺東窗日已紅。
      萬物靜觀皆自得,四時佳興與人同。
      道通天地有形外,思入風云變態中。
      富貴不淫貧賤樂,男兒到此是豪雄。

      The introduction to Jing Guan Yin dated 1609 quotes the second line of these lyrics.

      Yu Mode (羽音 Yu Yin)

    22. 離別難 Libie Nan (Parting is Such Sorrow); subtitle: "送蔣馭鹿遊建溪 (Seeing Jiang Yulu off to Jianxi; XII/205)
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo); see also #23, #24 and #26. Further detail here, including alternate lyrics by Liu Yong. Zha 35/--/507: only in Japan.

      越水吳山,待扁舟,久矣棲遲。只丈夫,南北東西。著征衫,何必贈將離。
      應只有,奇字盈囊。虎跳龍臥。落紙徵飛。過嚴灘。為訪富春舊跡。重上釣魚磯。

      雲冉冉。草萋萋。憶臨岐,秋士休悲。聽武夷幔亭仙樂。便驂鸞梅福也相期。
      何況是,到處逢迎。天涯知己,斫鱠銜杯。懷故苑。暢好荔枝未熟。勸汝莫忘歸。

    23. 離別難,又譜 Libie Nan #2; subtitle as above (XII/207)
      Zha 35/--/507 as above; further comment here.

      Lyrics as #22 but differences in the music.

    24. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/209)
      Zha Guide 35/--/508: only in Japan; 華清引 31910.208 only 華清 Hua Qing (man's name)
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨
      Zou Zhimo); see also #22, #23 and #26
      (Elsewhere the poem has the added comment "晏起 (評語:羡門雲,非玉台金屋人不解。")

      重重珠幕護窗紗。春思方佳。一種嬌慵如夢。微聞鶯語嘩。
      丁香輕掩扣微差。綠雲半側堆鴉。枕痕紅暈重。不敢見菱花。

    25. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (XII/210)
      Separate entry; music is unrelated to the Pili Yin used for Feng Lei Yin
      Lyrics by 唐,沈佺期 Shen Quanqi (c.650-713), also in YFSJ, begin

      歲七月,火伏而金生。
      客有鼓瑟於門者,奏霹靂之商聲。

    26. 月當廳 Yue Dang Ting; subtitle: 秋夜聞蟋蟀聲 (On an autumn evening hearing cricket sounds; XII/213)
      Zha Guide 35/--/508; only here; 14658.231:
      cipai; 調見「梅溪詞」(15223.178 book by 史達祖)
      Lyrics by 鄒訏士 Zou Xushi (鄒祇謨 Zou Zhimo; see #22, #23 and #24 above)

      小窗煙雨冥冥。響颼飀。吹墜落葉空庭。急杵浮砧。淒淒石竹牆陰。
      偏與愁人作楚。細思量、甚事恰關卿。無端似。空床泣恨。斷軫傳情。
      年年慣做西風伴。隱荒苔。啼殘青穗余燈。哀笳遠笛。飛來何處秋聲。
      二十五番寒照靜。聽清鉦、歷歷嚴更。偏怨汝。叫回孤夢。短發星星。

      Compare 史達祖 Shi Dazu (1163-1220):
      白璧舊帶秦城夢,因誰拜下,楊柳樓心。正是夜分,魚鑰不動香深。
      時有露螢自照,佔風裳、可喜影麩金。坐來久,都將涼意,盡付沈吟。
      殘雲事緒無人捨,恨匆匆、藥娥歸去難尋。綴取霧窗,會唱幾拍清音。
      猶有老來印愁處,冷光應    念雪翻簪。空獨對、西風緊,弄一片桐陰。

      Original sources also have: 評語:阮亭云,淒淒切切,此潯陽江上琵琶也。文友亦有詞云「已曾貫滿半閒堂,重來叫破邯鄲枕。」
                    太罪蟋蟀,得無不平耶。當以程村此詞平反之。)

    27. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (Recalling a Prince; XII/215)
      Zha Guide 35/--/509: only in Japan; 11558.1: cipai; 7,7,7.3,7. (here the last 7 is repeated)
      Opening four notes same as Zhu Zhi Ci with harmonics on first two (the Zhengben is the same);
      Lyrics by 秦少游 Qin Shaoyou (秦觀 Qin Guan, 1049 - 1100)

      萋萋芳草憶王孫。柳外樓高空斷魂。
      杜宇聲聲不忍聞,欲黃昏,
      雨打梨花深閉門。   (This line written out again for the closing harmonic passage.)

    28. 草堂唫(吟)Cao Tang Yin (Thatched Cottage Intonation; XII/216; .pdf)
      Zha Guide 35/--/509: only here; 31629.173 etc. xxx; "from 曲肱軒 Qu Gong Xuan"
      The lyrics here are the same as those of the first four sections plus the first line of the fifth section, of the 10+1 section melody 梨雲春思 Li Yun Chun Si, which attributes them to 錢塘毛先舒 Mao Xianshu, who lived in Hangzhou when Jiang Xingchou was there.

      1. 鵲橋仙 Que Qiao Xian     (Magpie Bridge Immortal; ci structure [from 秦觀 Qin Guan?] unrelated to Qingping Yue)
        輕暖破寒,檐雲閣雨,庭院深深鶯語。
        夭桃枝半出牆頭,見無數蜂狂蝶舞。
        柳外繡鞍,花前羅襪,陌上喧天簫鼓。
        春風意惱人腸,問何處江皋湘浦。
      2. 點絳唇 Dian Jiang Chun           (ci structure same as that of Nan Pu Yue)
        細雨斜風,十二高樓煙幾寸。
        誰相廝讓?傳與青鸞信。
        倦倚珠簾,長抱青春恨。
        悶悶悶。
        亂紅成陣,又是清明近。
      3. 好事近 Hao Shi Jin (name of a cipai; compare this one by Fan Chengda)
        獨自步苔階,驚訊海棠開遍。
        怪得東皇有意,也到深深院。
        惜花常是為花愁,羞妬春風面。
        閉門不管韶華,付與驚和燕。
      4. 畫堂春 Hua Tang Chun (name of a cipai; #4 in 1664; compare this one from 1687)
        借問東風來幾時,玉堂彩燕雙飛。
        浮花浪蘃弄春暉,蜂蝶霏霏。
        門巷輪諦雜沓,園林紅紫芳菲。
        海棠自惜是花妃,着意徘徊,着意徘徊。  
        Wei (coda)
        昨夜東風入畫屏,欹杴不勝情。 

    29. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si; subtitle 春閨 Chun Gui (Spring Chamber; XII/220; my transcription)
      Zha Guide 35/--/510; as with #2 Qingping Yue, same lyrics as but different music from:
          1677 (XII/374), 1677 (XII/392) and 1802 (XVII/549); it is not in 1738 (?)
      Lyrics by 馮延巳 Feng Yansi (903? - 960; ICTCL) follow the cipai:

      紅滿枝,綠滿枝,宿雨厭厭睡起遲,閒庭花影移。
      憶歸期,數歸期,夢見雖多相見稀,相逢知幾時。

      春閨 Chun Gui has no connection with 春閨怨 Chun Gui Yuan.

      Also transcribed in Wang Di, #52, p.124.

    30. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (XII/221; recording and further comment)
      Zha Guide 26/215/408: 3rd of 5 with this title; same lyrics and music as in 1618; compare 1585
      Lyrics, which have no connection to those in YFSJ, are from a ghost story about Su Shi and a female qin player; for this reason they are generally attributed to Su Shi himself.

      音音音,真負心,恁負心....

    31. 竹枝詞 Zhuzhi Ci (XII/222)
      The tablature in
      the Zhengben is the same as here, but this Toko Kinpu adds instructions to play the first two notes in harmonics; both ways work musically (compare Yi Wangsun).
      Zha Guide 35/--/510: only in Japan; zhu zhi ci were (ABC) "ancient folk love poems" or "classical poems on local themes"
      26424.104 竹枝詞 references 劉禹錫 Liu Yuxi, but it has no mention of a cipai and does not quote any lyrics. 26424.103 竹枝 gives more detail, saying zhuzhi were poems in the Songs of Recent Times (近代曲辭 Jindai qu ci) section of Yuefu Shiji. Liu Yuxi lyrics of this title are indeed included in that section of Yuefu Shiji (see Folio 81).

      Although the Japanese setting does not use lyrics by Liu Yuxi, as in YFSJ they are also 7x4 and so could be used to sing the Liu Yuxi lyrics. The lyrics actually used in Japan, which are unattributed, are as follows:

      非商非羽聲吾伊,     Fēi shāng fēi yǔ shēng wú yī,   (吾伊 is the sound of reading)
          Without (the notes) shang or yu the sound is like reading;

      宛轉歌喉唱豔詞。     wǎn zhuǎn gē hóu chàng yàn cí.
          through the sinuous song line one sings beautiful lyrics.

      斷腸那何人不識,     Duàn cháng nà hé rén bù shí,
          As for heartbreak, who does not know it?

      一腔清韻有誰知。     yī qiāng qīng yùn yǒu shuí zhī.
          As for a clear melody, who does know it?

      As yet I have not been able to find the source of these lyrics. The translation is tentative.

      Meanwhile, the book of transcriptions by Wang Di (#31, pp.98) arranges for this melody two sets of the YFSJ Zhu Zhi Ci lyrics by Liu Yuxi. These are:

      • 山上層層桃李花,雲間煙火是人家。銀釧金釵來負水,長刀短笠去燒畲。
      • 楊柳青青江水平,聞郎江上唱歌聲。東邊日出西邊雨,道是無晴還有晴。

      In her transcription Wang Di changes several notes in the second half, including the last two notes. To this melody the second of these poems is sung on this modern recording.

    32. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/223)
      Zha Guide 35/--/511: only in Japan; "Little Melody"
      Lyrics unattributed. Also transcribed in
      Wang Di (#37, pp.102)

      嫌小人而踏高位,鶴有乘軒。 惡利口之覆邦家,雀能穿屋。

      Shangjiao Mode (商角音 Shangjiao Yin)

    33. 箕山操 Jishan Cao (XII/224)
      Zha Guide 35/--/511: only here; see comment under
      Dun Shi Cao
      Lyrics are unattributed but can be found in earlier sources such as #3 in the Qin Cao of Yang Weizhen. (N.B., baike.baidu.com specifies they are from Yang's 鐵崖樂府 Tiěyá Yuèfǔ.

      箕之山兮可耕而樵,箕之水兮可飲而游。
      牽牛何來兮飲吾上流,彼以天下讓兮我以之逃。
      世豈無堯兮應堯之求,吾與堯友兮不與堯憂。

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #47 (p.113).

      Shang Mode (商音 Shang Yin)

      扶桑操(之一) Fusang Cao
      ("Fusang" is an old name for Japan; the following three pieces do not sound Japanese, and this comment is thought to mean they were created by Shin-etsu in Japan itself. See also
      more.)

    34. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #1; XII/225)
      Zha Guide: 35/--/511: only in Japan
      Lyrics unattributed;

      熙熙日永熙扶桑,君聖臣賢來萬方。
      淳風穆穆,厚德洋洋。
      禮樂聲久,詩書音義長。
      物阜兮,廣貯廣積,民安兮,多善多良。
      山川萃秀兮,水色微茫。
      亰國生奇兮,樹影菁蒼。
      衆美具兮,人齊暢,恍疑遊世羲皇。

    35. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (扶桑操 Fusang Cao #2; XII/227)
      Zha Guide: 35/--/512: only in Japan (no connection to 思親操
      Si Qin Cao)
      Lyrics unattributed; also transcribed in Wang Di (#38, pp.102)

      白雲不共海東齊,東海茫茫望轉迷。
      終日思親人不知,一日思親十二時。

      Jiao Mode (角音 Jiao Yin)

    36. 安排曲 An Pai Qu (XII/228)
      Zha Guide 35/--/512: only in Japan (
      fusang); 7221.314 only an pai
      Lyrics "by a person of the Song dynasty" (compare 安分咏 An Fen Yong in 解人頤 Jie Ren Yi by 錢德蒼 Qian Decang [18th c.]) 功名大小,天已安排了,何用百般機巧。
      榮休喜,辱休惱,開先謝早,此理人知少。
      萬事算來由命,聽自然真個好。

      榮枯得失,天已安排畢,何用強勞心力。
      得一日,過一日,泰來否極,機巧終可益。
      萬事付之一笑,前程事,暗如漆。

      Ruibin Mode (蕤賓音 Ruibin Yin)

    37. 樂極吟 Le Ji Yin (XII/229)
      Zha Guide 24/201/384: see introduction at
      Yu Ge Diao
      Same Liu Zongyuan lyrics but melody is quite different

      漁翁漁翁漁翁夜傍西巖宿....

      Gong Mode (宮音 Gong Yin)

    38. 高山 Gao Shan (XII/230-41)
      Zha Guide 2/21/14; a comment at end says, "神品執徐孟冬再校正". The melody and lyrics are similar to some of the
      versions published in China,

      The present version is in particular similar in music and lyrics to the only other version with lyrics, i.e., the one in Chongxiu Zhenchuan Qinpu (1585). Both have four sections, though in Japan the sections are not numbered. The lyrics amount to about 700 characters in all, beginning:

      懸崔削壁,天外雲間,蓬萊第一山.... (The entire Gao Shan lyrics can be seen on this .pdf file [146.5 KB]).

     
    -------------------------------------------------------

    Appendix II

    Meiwahon Toko Kinpu (Meiwa Toko Kinpu?; 1772)
    明和本東皋琴譜
    Minghe Ben Donggao Qinpu
    Qinqu Jicheng XII/245-59
    Four pieces are not in Hewen:

    1. Canglang Ge
    2. Ji Yinzhe
    3. Nanfeng Ge
    4. Yanguan Qu

    Although Van Gulik says that Toko Kinpu has Japanese copies of pieces Shin-etsu (Toko Zenji) taught beginners, this might not have been completely true; Zha Fuxi mentions numerous editions. The earliest (1709) was not available for QQJC, so Zha Fuxi took two of the many later editions and appended them to Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu:

    This edition was compiled in the 9th year of Meiwa, 1764 - 1772.

      Table of Contents

    1. 操縵 Cao Man (XII/248)
      Lyrics unattributed; same as the Tiaoxian Runong in
      1676

    2. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/249)
      Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in
      1676

    3. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/250)
      Lyrics (滄浪之水清兮....) by Qu Yuan; Zha Guide 39/--/552; no musical relation to
      Fan Canglang; transcribed in Wang Di (#34, pp.100)
      Also included below

    4. 鶴沖霄 He Chong Xiao (XII/250)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    5. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/251)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    6. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/252)
      Lyrics; same as 1676

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/252)
      See also
      1676 above

    8. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/254)
      Lyrics by 杜牧 Du Mu; also
      below; Zha Guide 40/--/553
      not in QQJC XII; Wang Di (#35, p.100) transcribes this as 送隱者 Song Yinzhe

      無媒徑路竹蕭蕭,自古雲林遠市朝。
      松道世間唯白髮,貴人頭上不會饒。

    9. 南風歌 Nanfeng Ge (XII/254)
      Zhiyin; lyrics only 南風之薰兮,可以解吾民之慍兮。南風之時兮,可以阜吾民之財兮。
      Same as
      Nanxun Cao below; these lyrics were also in the musically unrelated Nan Feng Ge (1.B.)

    10. 竹枝詞 Zhuzhi Ci (XII/255)
      Lyrics; same lyrics and music as in
      1676 (with a correction)

    11. 憶王孫 Yi Wangsun (XII/255)
      Lyrics; same as
      1676

    12. 華清引 Hua Qing Yin (XII/256)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/257)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    14. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/258)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    15. 陽關曲 Yangguan Qu (XII/258)
      Lyrics: only the four lines of Wang Wei's poem, thus different from (shorter than) the Yangguan Sandie
      below; also qiliang tuning

      Transcribed in Wang Di, #54, p.126.

     
    -------------------------------------------------------

    Appendix III

    Ohara Shiro's Toko Kinpu (1898)
    大原止郎本東皋琴譜
    Dayuan Zhilang ben Donggao Qinpu
    Qinqu Jicheng, XII/261-285
    No further information as yet on Ohara Shiro
    Eight pieces are not in either of the above two handbooks:

    1. Ming Feng Chaoyang
    2. Shi Jiao Yin
    3. Yu Qiao Wenda
    4. Yangguan Sandie
    5. Yi Lan Cao
    6. Ye Zuo
    7. Zhou Ye
    8. Cao Man Yin
      Table of Contents

    1. 調絃入弄 Tiaoxian Runong (XII/263)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    2. 長相思 Chang Xiang Si (XII/263)
      Lyrics by 馮延已 Feng Yanyi (not in YFSJ 69, pp.990-5); also in
      1676

    3. 南熏操 Nanxun Cao (XII/263)
      Lyrics and music same as in Nanfeng Ge
      above but mode called shangyin

    4. 滄浪歌 Canglang Ge (XII/263)
      Lyrics; also above in
      1772

    5. 梅花 Mei Hua (XII/264)
      Lyrics by
      Lin Bu; virtually identical to 1676

    6. 偶成 Ou Cheng (XII/264)
      Lyrics; same as
      1676

    7. 秋風辭 Qiu Feng Ci (XII/264)
      Same as
      1676 and 1772

    8. 熙春操 Xi Chun Cao (XII/265)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    9. 鳴鳳朝陽 Ming Feng Chaoyang (XII/265)
      47641.102xxx; only here; not in Zha Guide; not related to
      1525. The lyrics are:

      丹鳳五色羽,其名為鳳凰。
      昔周有盛徳,此鳥鳴髙岡。
      和聲隨翔風,窈窕相飄揚。
      鳳凰鳴矣,于彼高岡。
      梧桐生矣,于彼朝陽。
      梧桐生矣,于彼朝陽。

      Although the lyrics are here unattributed (101.237xxx?), some online sources say the first three lines form 岐山下 Qi Shan Xia by 韓愈 Han Yu. The rest is said to be from 說苑,辨物 the chapter Bian Wu in the Shuo Yuan.

    10. 安排曲 Anpai Qu (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    11. 子夜吳歌 Ziye Wu Ge (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in 1676

    12. 相思曲 Xiang Si Qu (XII/266)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    13. 小操 Xiao Cao (XII/267)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    14. 東風齊著力 Dongfeng Qi Zhuo Li (XII/267)
      Lyrics; same as
      1676

    15. 久離別 Jiu Libie (XII/267)
      Lyrics; same as Jiu Bieli in
      1676

    16. 浪淘沙 Lang Tao Sha (XII/268)
      Lyrics by 歐陽修 Ouyang Xiu; also in
      1676

    17. 石交吟 Shi Jiao Yin (XII/268)
      Lyrics unattited ; not in Zha Guide; only here (and
      TKKP 26)

      相逢此地亦雲奇,感謂吾儕道在斯。
      志合若彈流水操,機總常着不爭棊。
      一時意氣排萃岳,千古文章重楚辭。
      年少終童君莫讓。長纓何日繁龜茲。

      後記 Afterword:
      右《石交吟》者馬季良之諧譜也,師絕愛此曲之詞調,雖非師所諧乃手澤之舊譜也,其情可見又何不附載耶。
      .... this tablature was harmonized by Ma Jiliang....
      庚寅冬,葛村漁長識。 The comment (winter of gengyin: 1710? 1770? etc) was by Kuzumura/Katsumura Rryonaga/Isanaga

      Ma Jiliang (zhwiki) was from a family of tea merchants, married a daughter of 劉美 Liu Mei (1547-1606), the elder brother of the third empress of Zhao Zhenzong.

    18. 幽澗泉 You Jian Quan (XII/269)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    19. 醉翁操 Zui Weng Cao (XII/269)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    20. 三才引 Sancai Yin (XII/270)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    21. 寄隱者 Ji Yinzhe (XII/271)
      Lyrics; also above in
      1772

    22. 清平樂 Qingping Yue (XII/271)
      Lyrics by 孫蒼虬 Sun Cangqiu (孫蒼虯? 7135.xxx); also in
      1676

    23. 大哉引 Dazai Yin (XII/272)
      Lyrics; same as
      1676

    24. 霹靂引 Pili Yin (XII/272)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    25. 離別難 Libie Nan (XII/273)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676 (2)

    26. 歸去來辭 Gui Qu Lai Ci (XII/274)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    27. 樂極吟 Leji Yin (XII/276)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    28. 思親引 Si Qin Yin (XII/276)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    29. 漁樵問答 Yu Qiao Wenda (XII/276)
      Lyrics; related to various
      Yu Qiao Wenda Chinese versions, especially the one dated 1589?
      Transcribed in Wang Di, #51, pp.117-123.

    30. 陽關三疊 Yangguan Sandie (XII/280)
      Lyrics; qiliang tuning; related to the
      short Chinese versions but longer than the Yangguan Qu above;
      Transcribed in Wang Di, #50, p.116.

    31. 猗蘭操 Yi Lan Cao (XII/281)
      Lyrics (習習谷風....) as section 1 of
      1511 and of 1618, but melody seems unlike any Chinese version; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    32. 瑞鶴仙 Rui He Xian (XII/281)
      Lyrics; also in
      1676

    33. 夜座 Ye Zuo (XII/282)
      Only lyrics, no music; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    34. 舟夜 Zhou Ye (XII/282)
      Only lyrics, no music; not in the other Japanese handbooks

    35. 操縵引 Caoman Yin (XII/283)
      One section, no lyrics, only music; any lyrics would be similar to those in
      #1 above, but although the music is in the same style, it is rather different

     
    Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

    1. Japanese Guqin Handbooks
    These three handbooks are all in 琴曲集成 Qinqu Jicheng (QQJC), Volume XII/165-381. The QQJC preface by Zha Fuxi (p. ii), entitled "和文注音琴譜 Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu" (the other two volumes included here are mentioned only in the last line) begins as follows:

    This volume was in the collection of 烏程周慶雲 Zhou Qingyun of Wucheng; it has now "returned" to the Shanghai Library. Its entry in Mr. Zhou's Qinshu Cunmu says it was "日本東皋越杜多撰 compiled in Japan by Toko Etsu the Monk" (1639-1695), whose common name was Jiang Xingchou, style name Dongyue (Etsu in Japanese). He was from 浙江金華浦陽 Puyang in the Jinhua district of Zhejiang province. When young he left home. In 1676, while residing at the 杭州永福寺 Yongfu Temple in Hangzhou, to flee local difficulties he moved to Japan, using his studies of Chan (Buddhism) to make connection with the 關東幕府 Kanto bakufu (military govenment in the Tokyo region). He died at the 江戶祇園寺 Gion Temple in Edo (this was actually the Gion Temple in 水戶 Mito). Mr. Jiang while in China studied qin with Zhuang Zhenfeng and 褚虛舟 Zhu Xuzhou. While stuck in (滯) Japan he transmitted his qin art to the 日儒 Japanese Confucian Hitomi Chikudo and the 幕府貴官 Bakufu Chief Officer (?) Sugiura Kinsen....

    Zha Fuxi goes on to suggest that this handbook, though copied later by various people, came directly from Shen-Etsu. However, the account above suggests questions this.
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    2. Hewen Zhuyin Qinpu, p.1
    From QQJC XII/207. This expanded version has pp. 207/208. The larger seal below the title of the first piece says, "桂川家臧 Katsuragawa Family Collection" (see below".
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    3. "Correct Toko Kinpu"
    As yet I have only seen a photocopy of the Table of Contents.
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    4. Katsuragawa Family Collection (桂川家藏)
    桂川月池 Katsuragawa Etchi (1751 - 1809), a doctor of Chinese medicine, was also a qin player. See Van Gulik, Lore, p.239.
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    5. Pieces with the Katsuragawa family seal
    There are four: QQJC/XII/pp.167, 190, 205 and 220. The image at top shows p.167.
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    6. "訂正、校正"; it is not clear whether the revisions were to the melodies, to the lyrics, or to both.
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    7. A preliminary investigation suggests they are still in a Chinese style.
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