T of C 
Qin as
Qin in
/ Song
Analysis History Ideo-
Personal email me search me
WSQP   ToC 首頁
02. North of the Wen
- shang mode ( 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 ) 2
Wen Yang

This melody, surviving only in Wusheng Qinpu (1453), is thought to have been composed by the handbook's author/compiler, the Lazy Immortal.

There is no commentary accompanying the tablature. Wen Yang literally means North of the Wen, a river in Shandong province running east to west between Mount Tai and Qufu. On the south side of the river was a town called Bi.3

However, using Wen Yang as a title does not necessarily suggest a description of this place, as its mention was also used an allusion to making a clever excuse to avoid office and go into reclusion. This allusion comes from the following comment in The Analects, Book 6, Section 7.4

The Ji family wanted to appoint Min Ziqian custodian of Bi. Min Ziqian said, "Politely decline on my behalf. And if they come for me again, I will certainly be on the north side of the Wen River.

The Wen River formed the boundary between the states of Lu and Qi. Thus, Min Ziqian was saying that he would move to another state so that he could not be called to office by a corrupt ruler.


Original Preface

Eight Sections (untitled)

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 汶陽 Wen Yang references
17530.9 汶陽 Wen Yang relates the 孟子 Mencius story quoted here; 17530.10 is 汶陽端平詩雋 (-juan, jun strange?), a book which includes songs and poems.

    5/992/3 汶陽 Wen Yang mentions some later allusions:

應璩 Ying Qu (190-252); wrote hermetic poetry (11599.210, style name 休璉 Xiulian; see also ICTCL, 702-3)

杜甫 Du Fu (712-770)

曾鞏 Zeng Gong (1019-1083); Ouyang Xiu asked him to write an antithesis to Zuiweng Ting (see ICTCL, p.799). Strict Confucian, he became a high official.

翃韓翃 Han Hong (8th c.); see ICTCL, 607/8

2. Shang mode (商調 shang diao)
Standard tuning is usually considered as 5 6 1 2 3 5 6. For further information on shang mode see Shenpin Shang Yi and Modality in Early Ming Qin Tablature.

3. Bi
Translations give "Bi" for the pronunciation, but computer programs and 7298 宰 give only "Zai". (Return)

4. It seems to be Section 9 in some editions. (Return)

Return to the Wusheng Qinpu ToC or to the Guqin ToC.