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Intro   Compare 絕響 Jue Xiang and 老八張 Lao Ba Zhang, other silk CDs and silk titles 首頁
Guqin Players on Sitong Shenpin
See Guqin: The Incredible Instrument of Silk and Wood (1950-1970)1
絲桐神品琴人傳輯
The set of 30 CDs (image from Taobao 2)            

The short introductions to each of the 72 guqin players who made the guqin recordings on this set of 30 CDs were copied from the 10 books that came with the CDs, as shown at right. The original material can be seen in these two files:

This extracted material originally had only the introductions to all the players, in Chinese as well as English. As downloaded this information was spread out over all 10 volumes and presented in the order the CDs were arranged. Here they have been combined and put into alphabetical order. Initially links have been added to the recordings by the player discussed. It is intended that in future further links will be added. In addition, the language has in some cases been edited to fit the style of this website, or to clarify matters that might be confusing. 2

The 72 qin players' names arranged alphabetically by pinyin spelling are as follows. * indicates the 41 players here that are among the 78 players in 絕響 Jue Xiang. For the other 37 players in Jue Xiang there are short introductions in the accompanying book, but these are not quite so easy to extract.

  1. 陳長林 Chen Changlin (1932-)
    Original name 「Chen Changling」, he came from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Ever since his early childhood, he had been chanting Chinese classics and then studied in a private school. In the 1940s, he learned about qin playing from his father Chen Qinqu and his cousin, Wu Zimei. In the 1951, he studied at the Electric Power Engineering Department of Shanghai Jiaotong University. After his graduation, he worked at the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and dedicated himself to researching on electronic computer. In his spare time, he kept playing the guqin and doing related research. He joined Jin Yu Qin Association and Beijing Guqin Research Institute respectively in 1951 and 1956. He started reconstructing melodies from tablature in 1958 and published several papers about computer and guqin. In 1981, he designed a computer processing system for traditional qin notation, which created a new realm where computers were used to process jian zi pu (abbreviated character tablature) of guqin. From 1998 to 2002, he took advantage of the development of programming software to produce MIDI guqin and to make computer music playing of traditional qin notation come true.
    陳長林(1932 ~ )曾用名陳長齡、陳長令。祖籍福建福州。自幼吟唱古詩文,讀私塾。20 世紀 40 年代, 隨父親陳琴趣和表姨吳子美習琴。1951 年就讀上海交通大學電力工程系,畢業後就職於中 國科學院計算機技術研究所,從事電子計算機研究,業餘從事古琴的演奏與研究。1951 和 1956 年先後加入今虞琴社和北京古琴研究會。1958 年開始打譜。曾發表有多篇電腦及古琴 方面的論文。1981 年,他設計製成的古琴譜電腦處理系統開創了電腦處理古琴減字譜的新領 域。1998 至 2002 年間,他利用編程軟件開發實現了 MIDI 古琴和古琴譜的電腦奏樂。

  2. 陳澤鍠 Chen Zehuang (1905-2000)
    Generally known through life by his style name, 陳琴趣 Chen Qinqu, he was from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Mentored by He Zhendai, he was good at guqin, which he introdued to his son, Chen Changlin. He also excelled at painting and calligraphy and wrote a collection called Poetry from the Tower of Relishing the Qin.
    陳澤鍠(1905 ~ 2000)字陳琴趣,以字行於世;福建福州人。師從何振岱,善古琴、書畫,著有《琴趣樓詩》。

  3. 陳樹三 Chen Shusan (1908-1974)
    was a librarian of Hubei Research Institute of Culture and History, and second-generation inheritor of the famous herbalist Chen Taiyi in Wuhan. Thoroughly proficient in qin, chess, calligraphy and painting, he created 「San Xian Pu」 (stave with three lines only) on his own and converted ancient notations into modern ones to make them easier to perform by later generations. His contributions mentioned above caused quite a sensation in qin circles, with Zha Fuxi paying a special visit to Wuhan to analyze more deeply issues of qin playing.
    陳樹三(1908 ~ 1974)湖北省文史館館員。武漢「陳太乙」的第二代傳人,琴棋書畫無所不通。曾自創「三線譜」, 將古譜轉換成現代曲譜,便於後人彈唱。這一貢獻曾引起琴界轟動,查阜西曾專程赴漢與其切磋探討。

  4. 陳維斌 Chen Weibin (1890-1978)*
    who styled himself as 「Zhongxun」 and 「Owner of Jingyi Hall」, came from Shaoyang, Hunan Province. He once studied at a military school and later served as an instructor there. Through his lifetime, he loved guqin ardently and was a player, collector, connoisseur, instructor and author. He travelled a lot to visit the famous qin masters and collected qin with all the financial means he could muster. Naming his residence at 46 Liufangling, Changsha, as 「Garden of A Hundred Qin」, he made friends through qin playing and gathered a lot of people in the Garden. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he donated all the 13 precious qin in his collection to the national authority. Among them was 「Yu Ling Long」, a famous qin of the Tang Dynasty now held in the collection of the Palace Museum. In 1952, he was hired in Hunan Provincial Research Institute of History and Literature. Later he served as headman of folk music group in the Hunan Association of Chinese Musicians Association. In his late years, he was still engaged in qin-related activities.
    陳維斌(1890 ~ 1978)號仲巽,又自號精一堂主人。祖籍湖南邵陽。曾入軍校學習,任教官。一生酷愛古琴, 集演奏、收藏、鑒賞、授徒、著述於一身,探訪各地名家,竭其財力收藏各代古琴,將位 於長沙市留芳嶺 46 號􏰥所取名為「百琴園」,以琴會友,盛極一時。中華人民共和國成立後,將所藏 13 張珍貴古琴捐給國家,其中,唐代名琴「玉玲瓏」至今仍收藏於故宮博物院。 1952 年被聘為湖南省文史研究館館員,後又擔任中國音樂家協會湖南省音協民族音樂組組長, 晚年忙於琴學活動。

  5. 陳心園 Chen Xinyuan (1908-1994)*
    whose original given name was 「Yongkui」, had the courtesy name of 「Xingyuan」 (which was later changed into 「Xinyuan」) and art names of 「Baoyi」 and 「Jiangxing」. Born into a family with profound scholar heritage in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, he became a qin-playing disciple of Xu Lisun and earned Xu’s strong approval. In his early days, he studied Chinese internal medicine and acupuncture. While in his later half lifetime, he dedicated himself to the Chinese medicine cause with himself taking part in compiling Chinese medicine works and publishing multiple papers about Chinese medicine. He was also good at poetry. A number of his poetry works had been selected into Anthology of Chinese Contemporary Poetry. In 1931, Mei An Qin Pu, which he transcribed, was lithographed out. He had been the second president of Mei An Qin Association since 1980. Qin Talk in Bao Yi Hall was his work.
    陳心園(1908 ~ 1994)原名永奎,字星垣,後改字為心園,號抱怡,又號疆行。生於江蘇南通書香世家。1927 年成為徐立蓀入室弟子,深得徐立蓀器重。早年習中醫內科及針灸科,後半生從事中醫工作, 曾 參 與 編 寫 中 醫 著 作 ,發 表 多 篇 中 醫 論 文 。善 詩 詞 ,多 首 作 品 入 選 《 中 國 當 代 詩 詞 選 》。1 9 3 1 年 , 由他繕寫的《梅庵琴譜》石印面世。1980 年起任梅庵琴社第二任社長。著有《抱怡堂琴話》。

  6. 陳堯庭 Chen Yaoting (1903-1968)
    also known as 「Yaoting」, styled himself as 「Qinchi」, literally 「a person addicted to qin」. He was a native of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, and studied calligraphy and seal cutting in his childhood. He later focused on painting and poetry. Fond of music, he was also a collector. With twelve first-class guqin at home, he hailed his home as a place of twelve guqin. He was also an archaeologist. He did not start to play the guqin until the age of 30, but he could play more than 30 pieces. He used to teach guqin at Xi’an Conservatory of Music. He was also learned in painting and seal cutting and was one of the founders of Shaanxi contemporary seal cutting art.
    陳堯庭(1903 ~ 1968)一署堯亭,號琴痴。陝西西安人。自幼習書法、篆刻,後攻繪畫、詩詞。精通音律,喜 愛收藏,因家藏上好古琴 12 張,故自號「十二古琴人家」,亦為文物考古專才。30 歲始學 古琴,能奏 30 余譜。曾任教於西安音樂學院,教授古琴。此外,其在書畫篆刻上亦造詣深厚, 是陝西當代篆刻藝術的重要奠基人之一。

  7. 程午嘉 Cheng Wujia (1902-1985)*
    who was also called 「Wujia」, was born into a family originally from Shanghai. He learned traditional Chinese musical instruments from his father in his childhood. He followed Wang Yanqing and Xu Lisun for the qin art, and Ni Qingquan and Shen Zhaozhou for pipa playing. He also played Jiangnan-style woodwind instruments, Shifan Luogu percussions, and Hunan local music. He had his own pipa playing style that incorporated the features of Pudong, Chongming and Pinghu Schools. In 1936, he co-founded Jinyu Qin Association. He worked as a teacher successively at Huadong Military and Political University, Art Department of Shandong University, and Nanjing University of the Arts.

  8. 崔善元 Cui Shanyuan (?-?)
    was a qin player from Chongqing during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949).
    崔善元(生卒年不詳)民國重慶琴家。

  9. 範文遠 Fan Wenyuan (?-?)
    was a qin player from Hankou, Hubei Province.
    範文遠(生卒年不詳) 湖北漢口琴家。

  10. 顧梅羹 Gu Meigeng (1899-1990)*
    whose given name was 「Tao」 and who styled himself as 「Qinchan」, was from a family originally from Huayang, Sichuan Province. Born in Changsha, he was deeply influenced in his childhood by his grandfather Gu Yucheng, who was a qin player. At 12, he formally learned to play it from his father Gu Zheqing and his uncle Gu Zhuoqun and grasped the quintessence of Chuan School of the qin art. He taught the art successively in Taiyuan and Changsha and in 1956, he was hired as a correspondence researcher at the Research Institute of National Music of the Central Conservatory of Music and joined Beijing Guqin Research Institute. He was also one of the authors of the Editorial Commentary on Surviving Guqin Music Notations and the Editorial Commentary on Fingering Techniques in Surviving Guqin Music Anthologies, under coordination of Zha Fuxi. From 1959 on, he served as a teacher at the Guqin Department of Shenyang Conservatory of Music. He notated multiple qin compositions and wrote several papers on the qin art. He set up Liaoning Guqin Research Institute along with Ling Qizhen, etc. and served as president. The manuscript of his teaching material was published under the title of 「Essentials of the Qin Art」 in 2004.
    顧梅羹(1899 ~ 1990) 字燾,別號琴禪。祖籍四川華陽,生於長沙。自幼受祖父琴家顧玉成熏陶,12 歲時正式 隨父顧哲卿、叔顧卓群習琴,得川派真傳。先後在太原和長沙教授古琴。1956 年,被聘為中 央音樂學院民族音樂研究所特約通訊研究員,加入北京古琴研究會,參與了由查阜西主持編 纂的《存見古琴曲譜輯覽》和《存見古琴指法譜字輯覽》的整理工作。1959 年後,任教於沈 陽音樂學院古琴專業。先後打譜多首琴曲,撰寫多篇琴學論文。1980 年,與淩其陣等創辦遼 寧古琴研究會,任會長。2004 年,其教學遺稿《琴學備要》手稿影印出版。

  11. 管平湖 Guan Pinghu (3 CDs; compare 4; 1897-1967)*
    whose given name was 「Ping」 and who styled himself as 「Ji’an」, 「Zhongkang」 and 「Pinghu」, came from Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. He learned painting from his father, Guan Nianci, who was a court painter in the Qing Dynasty, and qin playing from Yu Xiangfu, a qin master in Beijing. After his father passed away when he was still young, he sought mentoring extensively and later came under the tutelage of Yang Zongji. He also benefited a lot from Ye Shimeng. Learning about flower and figure painting from Jin Shaocheng, he was adept at fine brushwork painting. He was a core member of Hushe Painting Society. Later he worked as a teacher in Peking Jinghua Academy of Arts. In 1938, he set up Fengsheng Qin Association. In 1947, he established Beiping Qin Learning Society with other qin players, laying the foundation for Beijing Guqin Research Institute. After the People’s Republic of China was founded, he was hired as associate researcher at the Research Institute of Music of the Chinese Academy of Arts bearing its present name, and he was devoted wholeheartedly to the research and sorting out of guqin-related materials and the exploration of ancient music notations. Meanwhile, he reconstructed from tablature several important qin music pieces and wrote Study on Ancient Fingering and some other research papers. Good at qin repair and authentication, he overhauled several famous qin In 1977, his performance of Flowing Streams was recorded on a copper disc as the only piece of traditional Chinese music that was sent into space as the voice from the Earth aboard the spacecraft probes Voyagers 1 and 2 of the United States.
    管平湖(1897 ~ 1967)名平,字吉庵,仲康,號平湖。祖籍江蘇蘇州。父親為清代宮廷畫師管念慈,自幼隨父 學習繪畫,從北京琴人俞香甫習琴。幼年喪父後,廣泛求藝,拜楊宗稷為師習琴,受益葉詩夢,師從畫家金紹城學花卉、人物,擅長工筆,為湖社畫會主要成員之一,後任教於北平京 華美術專科學校。1938年組建風聲琴社。1947年與琴人創辦北平琴學社,為北京古琴研究會的成立打下了基礎。中華人民共和國成立後,被聘為現中國藝術研究院音樂研究所副研究 員,專門從事古琴研究、整理工作,全身心挖掘古譜,打譜多首重要琴曲,撰寫《古指法考》 一書及多篇古琴文論。擅修琴、鑒琴,曾修復多張名琴。1977 年,其演奏的《流水》作為唯 一一首中國音樂被收入銅制磁盤唱片,代表著地球的聲音,搭載美國旅行者 1 號和 2 號探測 器飛入太空。

  12. 關仲航 Guan Zhonghang (1896-1972 [?])*
    a Manchu from the powerful Gūwalgiya clan, given name Enji, was born in Beijing. He learned to play the qin at an early age and never quit. Once tutored by Yang Zongji about qin playing, he later joined Beijing Guqin Research Institute and became a contracted player at the Research Institute of National Music of the Central Conservatory of Music. In the 1930s, he taught Gao Peiluo, Ambassador of the Netherlands to China, to play the qin. How to Play the Guqin was his work.
    關仲航(1896 ~ 1972)祖籍滿洲,瓜尔佳氏,原名恩楫,生於北京。青年習琴,撫琴不輟。曾師從楊宗稷習琴,後加入北 京古琴研究會,任中央音樂學院民族音樂研究所特約演奏員。20 世紀 30 年代曾教授荷蘭駐 華使節高羅佩學琴。著有《怎樣演奏古琴》。

  13. 桂伯鑄 Gui Bozhu (1878-1968)
    whose original name was 「Bozhu」, styled himself as 「Shicheng」 and 「Baizhu」. Coming from Guiyang, Guizhou Province, he was committed to his family tradition of qin playing, learning the art from his father Gui Yanting. Later, he studied under Huang Mianzhi, a qin master. After the Revolution of 1911, he devoted himself to politics. In 1934, Gui Bozhu resigned from all administrative duties and took some idle positions like provincial adviser. He also served successively as senior editor and deputy director of Guizhou Centre for Literature Col- lection and Compilation and Guizhou Bureau of Provincial Annals, and deputy director of Guizhou Literature Committee. He also took part in the compilation of Guizhou Annals. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, he served successively as representative of the people from Guiyang City and Guizhou Province, member of Cultural Relics Review Committee, President of Guizhou Branch of China Artist Association, member of China Guqin Academy, director of Guizhou Wenqin and Bangzi Operas Research Committee, deputy director of Guizhou History and Literature Study Museum. He made great achievements in the study of Chinese Opera where he promoted Wenqin Opera (predecessor of Guizhou Opera), and also held great knowledge in poetry, painting and calligraphy.
    侯作吾(1910 ~ 1963)名卓,又名遇辰。四川營山縣人。自幼嗜琴技、繪畫。1933 年畢業於上海藝專。曾留學 日本。承襲蜀派古琴風格。中華人民共和國成立後,先後在中央音樂學院、上海音樂學院、 四川音樂學院教授古琴。他是我國第一個將古琴減字譜譯成五線譜出版的人。1957 年和楊蔭 瀏整理出版《古琴曲匯編》(第一集)。

  14. 郭同甫 Guo Tongfu (1885-1971)*
    whose given name was 「Zengliang」 and who styled himself as 「Tongfu」, came from Minhou, Fujian Province. In his early days, he was tutored about qin playing by Zhu Fengjie, also known as Tongjun, who was a famous qin artist in the Qing Dynasty. He took part in its imperial examinations. During the Republic of China period, he served as county mayor. After 1949, he worked in Shanghai Museum of Literature and History. Guo Tongfu was adept at qi and martial arts.
    郭同甫(1885 ~ 1971)名曾量,號同甫。福建閩侯人。早年師從清代著名琴家祝鳳喈,字桐君,習琴。曾參加科考。 民國期間曾任縣長。1949 年後,為上海文史館館員。擅長圍棋、武術。

  15. 侯作吾 Hou Zuowu (1910-1963)*
    whose given name was 「Zhuo」 and 「Yuchen」, came from Yingshan, Sichuan Province. He had been addicted to qin playing and painting since his childhood. He graduated from Shanghai Art College in 1933 and had been studying abroad in Japan. He had adopted the style of qin playing of the Shu School. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he taught guqin in the Central Conservatory of Music, Shanghai Conservatory of Music and Sichuan Conservatory of Music. He was the first person in China known to have transcribed jianzipu (shorthand tablature) for guqin into staff notation. In 1957, he sorted away and published Collection of Qin Compositions (First Volume) along with Yang Yinliu.
    侯作吾(1910 ~ 1963)名卓,又名遇辰。四川營山縣人。自幼嗜琴技、繪畫。1933 年畢業於上海藝專。曾留學 日本。承襲蜀派古琴風格。中華人民共和國成立後,先後在中央音樂學院、上海音樂學院、 四川音樂學院教授古琴。他是我國第一個將古琴減字譜譯成五線譜出版的人。1957 年和楊蔭 瀏整理出版《古琴曲匯編》(第一集)。

  16. 黃松濤 Huang Songtao (1900-2002)
    whose original name was 「Hua」, styled himself as 「Songtao」 「Mufu」 and 「Fengqi Shanmin」 (literally 「resident in a mountain of phoenix」). He named his study 「Wanqing Lu」 (literally 「room of the setting sun」) and 「You Cao Cao Tang」 (literally 「hall of grass」). Coming from Wuhan, Hubei Province, he studied poetry, verse, painting, seal cutting and guqin playing from his uncle Huang Yuting when he was a child. He also came under the tutelage of Fang Mei, Xie Yunseng and Xu Ruizhi. Besides guqin, he was also good at painting, calligraphy and seal cutting.
    黃松濤(1900 ~ 2002)原名華,別號頌淘、木夫、鳳棲山民,齋名晚晴廬、幽草草堂。湖北武漢人。自幼從伯 父黃雨亭學習詩文、書畫、篆刻及古琴。曾師從方眉、謝耘僧、徐瑞芝諸先生習琴。除古琴外, 其在繪畫、書法及篆刻方面均有較深的造詣。

  17. 黃雪輝 Huang Xuehui (女; 1898-1974)*
    female, was a native of Huizhou, Guangdong Province and wife of the qin player Xu Yuanbai. She learned to play the qin from her husband when she was young and the couple shared their enthusiasm for the qin art for decades. After Xu Yuanbai, perished she shouldered the responsibility of teaching his art with strong determination, playing a positive role in promoting widely the Xinzhe School of the qin art after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
    黃雪輝(1898 ~ 1974),女,廣東惠州人。琴家徐元白的夫人。青年時隨夫學琴,伉儷情篤,操琴數十載。徐元 白去世後,毅然擔起了傳授古琴的擔子,為中華人民共和國成立後浙派古琴的傳播起到積極 作用。

  18. 黃漁仙 Huang Yuxian (女; 1886-1982)*
    female, whose given name was 「Song」, styled herself as 「Yuxian」. She learned qin playing from Zhou Zhengao, a well-known qin master in Quanzhou. She showed up at Shanghai Morning Breeze Hut Qin Meet in 1920. Over the following ten years, she took part in various qin gatherings held in Shanghai and Suzhou. Wild Geese Landing on the Sandy Shore and Evening Song of a Drunken Fisherman were her favorite pieces. She bore her husband’s surname after getting married and usually signed herself as 「Li Huang Yuxian」.
    黃漁仙(1886 ~ 1982),女,名松,字漁仙。師從泉州著名琴家周振高習琴。1920 年,參加上海晨風廬琴會。在 此後的十多年中,先後參加了上海、蘇州的琴會,常彈《平沙落雁》和《醉漁唱晚》。婚後 隨夫姓,常署名「黎黃漁仙」。

  19. 李浴星 Li Yuxing (1909-1976)
    also called 「Li Yi」 and 「Li Dongming」, whose original name was 「Li Liankui」, had the courtesy names of 「Jiesan」 and 「Yuxing」. His art names included 「Dachi」, 「Da Chi Yu Zhe」, 「Jingbo」, 「Jingbai」 and 「Jingbo Jushi」, etc. His study room had got names like 「Kui Ru Xuan」, 「Ban Mei Ge」, 「Mei Hua Shu Wu」, 「Kun Shan Yu Yun Qin Zhai」 and 「Xiao Zhai」, etc. His family came from Fengnan, Hebei Province. He had been learning painting, calligraphy, guqin, poetry and verse, etc. since his early childhood. After graduating from Tianjin Institute of Commerce and Law Department of Beijing China University, he dedicated himself to the cause of teaching. He was tutored by Yang Zongji about qin playing, who was the founder of the Jiuyi School. He deciphered tablature, compiled traditional qin notations, transplanted and composed qin compositions. In the 1930s, he established qin halls while teaching qin playing in Beijing. In the 1960s, he taught qin playing in Tangshan in his spare time when he was working there. He also held highly proficient knowledge in calligraphy, seal cutting, painting, poetry, verse, authentication and appreciation of cultural relics.
    李浴星(1909 ~ 1976)原名李連魁,字捷三,又名李沂、李洞明,字浴星,號大痴、大池、大池浴者、靜泊、 井白、靜泊居士等,以字行之。齋號魁儒軒、伴梅閣、梅花書屋、崑山玉韻琴齋、翛齋等。

  20. 凌其陣 Ling Qizhen (1911-1984)
    whose given names were 「Renwu」 and 「Sishi」, came from Shanghai. He had learned from Li Zhigu about the old Chuan School qin compositions, and had studied qin compositions of the Huaiyang School. He was engaged in the trade of rubber technology in his early days. In 1953, he was hired as a contract communication researcher of the Research Institute of National Music at the Central Conservatory of Music. After his retirement, he devoted himself wholly to guqin playing and related research. In 1980, he established Liaoning Guqin Research Association with Gu Meigeng and served as vice- president. He wrote Notes of Qin Study and published Qin Notations in Qiu Sheng Qin Hall, Qin Song in Qiu Sheng Qin Hall, etc. He also published multiple papers. Moreover, he placed high emphasis on deep digging and sorting out folk music, and composing poetry in ancient Chinese poetry form.

  21. 劉光前 Liu Guangqian (?-?)
    was a qin player from Wuhan, Hubei Province. In 1956, he set up a guqin research group in Wuhan.
    劉光前(生卒年不詳)湖北武漢琴家。1956 年,在武漢成立古琴研究小組。

  22. 劉景韶 Liu Jingshao (1903-1987)*
    whose given name was 「Qinzi」, was born in Yancheng to a family originally from Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. He learned poetry and music from his father at an early age. As a teenager, he was mentored by Yang Xinquan from Haimen, on Chongming- school pipa playing. He could play the entire repertoire of Yingzhou Ancient Tunes. In 1921, he was admitted into Nantong Normal College where he studied qin playing under Xu Lisun. Then in 1925, he went on to study at the Education and Administration Department of Dongnan University. He worked at Jiangsu Provincial Office of Education after graduation in 1929, and later served as guqin teacher at Shanghai Conservatory of Music from 1956 on. In 1986, he established Mengxi Qin Association in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. He compiled Basics of the Qin Art.

  23. 劉少椿 Liu Shaochun (1901-1971)*
    whose given name was 「Shao」, styled himself as 「Shaochun」 or 「Deyi」. Coming from Fuping, Shaanxi Province, he was born into a salt merchant’s family and attended old-styled private school in his early years. He followed Sun Shaotao to learn to play the qin starting from 1928. In 1958, he went to teach at the Music Department of Nanjing University of Arts and came back to his place of birth, Yangzhou, to serve as librarian in Jiangsu Provincial Museum of History and Literature in 1963. His writings such as the Origin of Guangling Qin Art are important for the research on the Guangling School of the qin art. He was also quite good at boxing, playing the flute and the xiao (pipe), and singing Kunqu Opera.
    劉景韶(1903 ~ 1987)字琴子,祖籍江蘇崑山,生於鹽城。自幼隨父習詩文音樂。青少年時代,從海門楊心權 習崇明派琵琶,能彈《瀛州古調》全部曲目。1921 年考入南通師範學校,從徐立蓀習琴, 1925 年考入東南大學教育行政系,1929 年畢業後任職江蘇省教育廳。1956 年起,任上海音 樂學院古琴專業教師。1986 年在江蘇鎮江創辦夢溪琴社。編寫《琴學概論》。

  24. 劉兆鑫 Liu Zhaoxin (?-?)
    was a qin player from Chengdu, Sichuan Province.
    劉兆鑫(生卒年不詳)四川成都琴家。

  25. 龍琴舫 Long Qinfang (1886-1959)*
    came from Chengdu, Sichuan Province. At the age of nine, he studied the qin art under Yang Zidong, a qin player of the Fanchuan School and a friend of Zhang Kongshan’s. Later, he was tutored by Qian Shouzhan. At the same time, he exchanged qin pieces with Yang Gen, son of Yang Zidong, for mutual learning. Consequently, he had become quite a star at his teens. In 1916, along with Xie Yunsheng, he set up Changxiao Qin Studio and brought up lots of outstanding players for Sichuan.
    龍琴舫(1886 ~ 1959)四川成都人。9 歲時師承清末泛川派琴家、張孔山的琴友楊紫東。後隨錢綬詹學琴,並 與楊紫東之子楊亙通過「換」琴曲來相互學習,十幾歲便頗有名氣。1916 年,龍琴舫與謝雲 生開設「長嘯琴館」,為蜀中培養了不少優秀琴人。

  26. 馬壽洛 Ma Shouluo (馬祝眉 Ma Zhumei; 1869-1962)*
    also known as Ma Shouluo, had the genealogical name 「Junshen」 and styled himself in his elder days as 「Jusou」, literally, old man with chrysanthemum. Coming from Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, he was a xiucai degree from passing the imperial examination at the county level in the late Qing Dynasty. His father, Ma Lansheng (i.e., Ma Yuanxi, compiler of the Youshishanfang Qinpu [1887]), was thoroughly adept at arts such as qin, chess, calligraphy and painting, and throughout his life Ma Shouluo imbued himself in this distinguished and profound family heritage. In his early days, he was dedicated to education; afterwards he devoted his heart and soul to postal service throughout his lifetime. Once serving as postmaster in Lishui County, Ma Zhumei later was employed as a librarian in Zhejiang Museum of Literature and History. Being excellent at poetry and painting, he wrote much on various aspects of qin, writing such significant works as the Chun Hui Tang Qin Pu, Collections of Tong Jun, Collections of Qin Quote Carvings, Annals of the Qin Terrace, Special Edition of Qin Poems, etc.
    (Note: Chunhuitang Qinpu is said to have existed (survived?) in partial form. It is mentioned as the source of Ma's 雙鶴聽泉 Shuang He Ting Quan.)
    馬祝眉(1869 ~ 1962)又名壽洛,譜名雋詵,晚號菊叟。浙江溫州人,晚清秀才,家學淵源深厚,其父馬蘭笙 精通琴棋書畫。他早年從教,一生從事郵政工作,曾任麗水縣郵政局局長,後被聘為浙江省 文史館館員。擅長詩文書畫,著有《春暉堂琴譜》《桐君錄》《琴銘錄》《琴苑叢談》《琴詩選》等。

  27. 溥雪齋 Pu Xuezhai (姓名溥伒; 1893-1966) *
    whose given name was 「Pujin」, styled himself as 「Xuezhai」 「Xuedaoren」 「Nanshi Jushi」 and 「Songfeng Zhuren」. He had got several pseudonyms like 「Nanshi」, 「Suiyuan」 and 「Leshan」. His study was named 「Yiqingtang」 and 「Songfeng Caotang」. With his family coming from Beijing, he was of imperial lineage of the Qing Dynasty, specifically Zhenglan Qi. He studied Confucianism, calligraphy and Chinese painting at an early age, and then learned to play the guqin and the sanxian in his early youth. Tutored by Jia Kuofeng, he was proficient in qin playing and had a free and easy style. After 1949, he was hired at Beijing Museum of Literature and History and as contracted researcher at the Research Institute of National Music of the Central Conservatory of Music. In 1954, he served as president of Beijing Guqin Research Institute. His attainment in painting should not be underestimated. He helped Chen Yuan set up the Art Department of Furen University. He was also member of the Chinese Artists Association, vice president of Chinese Calligraphy Research Society, executive director of Beijing Federation of Literary and Art Circles, honorary painter of Beijing Painting Academy, vice-president of Beijing Painters Association and president of Beijing Calligraphy Research Society.
    溥雪齋(1893 ~ 1966)名溥伒,字雪齋,又字學齋,號雪道人,又號南石居士、松風主人,筆名南石、邃園、樂山等,堂號怡清堂、松風草堂。祖籍北京。生於北京清皇世家,正藍旗。自幼習儒學、書法、國畫, 少年時學古琴、三弦,師從賈闊峰習琴,琴藝精湛,風格灑脫。1949 年後受聘為北京文史館 館員、中央音樂學院民族音樂研究所特約研究員。1954 年任北京古琴研究會會長。其繪畫造 詣亦不可小覷,曾協助陳垣創辦輔仁大學美術系。此外,任中國美術家協會會員、中國書法 研究社副社長、北京市文聯常務理事、北京畫院名譽畫師、北京市美協副主席、北京市書法 研究社社長等。

    Further (originally a separate article, moved from here)

    He was a cousin of the last emperor of China, Aisin Gioro Puyi, and a direct descendent of the Daoguang emperor (1782 - 1821 -1850). The "Pu" here had been part of their generational name, but after 1911 some members of the former Manchu royal family used Pu as a surname (compare the common surname 傅 Fu, which 970.0 says has only this pronunciation). 18368.0 溥 Pu (other pronunciations are given as fu, bu, bo or po) says: according to the Record of Names (1960) its use as a surname is rather modern.

    Pu Xuezhai was a noted painter (see, e.g., on the Oberlin museum website) as well as qin player, but there is little biographical information available in English. There is also some confusion about his surname in that he is often called 傅雪齋 Fu Xuezhai (an English example is the well-known UNESCO recording called A Musical Anthology of the Orient 32, 1985). Chinese writings may use either Pu Xuezhai or Fu Xuezhai (溥伒 Pu Jin is also common but 傅伒 Fu Jin less so), but I have not yet found an explanation of when or why Fu got started as a substitute for Pu. Because as a surname Pu is rare but Fu is quite common, perhaps this is due to simple confusion. Or perhaps at some time, as when Puyi allowed the Japanese to make him emperor of Manchuria from 1934 to 1945, it became politically expedient for Pu Xuezhai to change his surname from Pu to Fu. In any case, it now seems most common to go back to his original surname, 溥 Pu.

    Pu Xuezhai's daughter 金毓嵐 Jin Yulan (1926 - ; also called 愛新覺羅毓嵐 Aisin Gioro Yulan) is a noted calligrapher. An online biography of 冷炳祥 Leng Bingxiang says he studied landscape painting from the 長子 eldest son of Pu Xuezhai, 愛新覺羅毓泉 Aisin Gioro Yuquan (1945 - ; also 愛新覺羅 毓泉 Aisingioro Yuquan), today a well-known calligrapher.

    溥雪齋(1893-1966),原名溥伒,爲末代皇帝愛新覺羅·溥儀之重堂兄弟。其爲「溥」字輩,1991年後部分滿清皇族取「溥」爲姓(對比於更常見的「傅」姓)、 18368.0 溥(讀爲「pu」, 「fu」, 「bu」, 「bo」或「po」)言「(姓錄)今人有姓之者」(《姓錄》,王素存,1960)。

    溥雪齋爲著名畫家(例見北京市文史研究館網站)和琴家。他常被稱爲傅雪齋,例如在聯合國教科文組織的《A Musical Anthology of the Orient 32》(1985)錄音裏,因此他的姓有些不清楚。中文著作有時使用溥雪齋,有時傅雪齋(溥伒也很常見,但傅伒很少見),但我至今未能解釋爲何「傅」有時代替「溥」。因「溥」姓很稀有但「傅」常見,這可能爲單純的混淆。或許,某時,像溥儀允許日本人將其於1934-1945間立爲滿洲皇帝時,溥雪齋爲政治原因將名字改爲傅雪齋。無論如何,現大多似乎重新使用原來的「溥雪齋」。

  28. 沈伯重 Shen Bozhong (?-?)
    was a qin player from Hunan Province. He campaigned relentlessly, along with Peng Zhiqing and Zhang Ziqian, for the publication of a journal on qin, Jinyu. He had attended meetings in Shanghai with Gu Meigeng and Peng Zhiqing, who taught in Shanxi Province with him afterwards.
    沈伯重(生卒年不詳)湖南琴家。曾與彭祉卿、張子謙為《今虞》琴刊的出版奔走努力。曾與顧梅羹、彭祉卿 到上海赴會,後一同到山西任教。

  29. 沈草農 Shen Caonong (1891-1973)*
    who styled himself as 「Qinkan」, was born into a family originally from Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province. He worked in the banking industry throughout his lifetime. In his early years, he learned the qin art of the Zhongzhou School and later studied under Pei Tiexia of the Chuan School (裴介卿 Pei Jieqing tablature? Same school but their relationship is unclear). In 1936, along with Zha Fuxi, Zhang Ziqian and Wu Jinglue, he set up Jinyu Qin Association in Shanghai. When he worked in Hong Kong in 1938, he taught Cai Deyun to play. Then the Chuan School qin art spread in Hong Kong, making great influence. He also wrote Introduction to Guqin together with Zha Fuxi and Zhang Ziqian and published several theses on his own. Poetry and calligraphy were also his expertise.
    沈草農(1891 ~ 1973)號琴戡。祖籍浙江蕭山。一生從事銀行工作。早年習中州派琴曲,後師從川派琴人裴鐵俠習琴。1936 年,在上海與查阜西、張子謙、吳景略等人共同組織今虞琴社。1938 年旅居 香港任職期間,授琴於蔡德允,川派琴曲由此在香港得以傳播並產生重要影響。與査阜西、 張子謙合著《古琴初階》,發表多篇論文。擅詩詞、書法。

  30. 王吉儒 Wang Jiru (女; 1909-2012; images: 1 and 2)
    female, was a qin player in Shanghai, whose art name was 「Xue Lang Shan Xian Qiao」, literally the quiet wood on the Xuelang Mountain. Coming from Wuxi, she learned from famous qin masters such as Wu Jinyang and Wu Jinglue.

    Adding to this: Although from 無錫 Wuxi she was mostly Shanghai-based, 號雪浪山嫻樵 with the nickname Xuelang Mountain Quiet Woodcutter, her teachers included 吳景略 Wu Jinglue from 常熟 Changshu, 吳浸陽 Wu Jinyang from Sichuan and 吳宗漢 Wu Zonghan; one of her students was 吳自英 Wu Ziying. Her biography at blog.sina.com.cn shows her to have had a very interesting life: starting as a dancer in Shanghai before turning to guqin, becoming active in the Jinyu Qinshe as well as singing kunqu and having a very active social life. She apparently recording 21 pieces for Zha Fuxi's project: presumably her recordings here came from that source.
    王吉儒(1909 ~ 2012),女,上海琴家,號雪浪山嫻樵,祖籍無錫。師從吳浸陽、吳景略等著名琴家。

  31. 汪孟舒 Wang Mengshu (further; 1887-1969) *
    whose given name was 「Xidong」, was a qin player, calligrapher, painter, and collector in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China period. He learned qin playing from Ye Shimeng. In the 1950s, he participated in the research activities organized by Beijing Guqin Research Institute to sort out ancient traditional qin notations and seek out ancient qin compositions. Meanwhile, he compiled books such as A Chronicle of Study on Qin Books and Short Lists, Official Explanation of Wusilan Fingering, Kui An Anthology of Qin, and Corrections to Yuepu Qin History. The two qin in his collection, 「Chun Lei」 and 「Ku Mu Long Yin」 are both golden treasures. Chun Lei Thunder came from Ye Shimeng and was made by Lei Wei in the Tang Dynasty. It was on the top of the list of Wanqin Hall built by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty and the most precious of all heritage qin from the Tang Dynasty.
    汪孟舒(1887 ~ 1969)字希董。清末民初琴家、書法家、畫家、收藏家。師從葉詩夢習琴。20 世紀 50 年代, 參加北京古琴研究會活動,整理古代琴譜,挖掘古代琴曲,編纂《編年考存琴書簡表》《烏 絲闌指法釋》《愧安琴譜》《樂圃琴史校》等。其所藏「春雷」「枯木龍吟」均為名琴中之 珍品。其中,所藏至寶「春雷」,從葉詩夢處所得,為盛唐雷威所制,曾位列宋徽宗「萬琴堂」 之首,是傳世唐琴中最珍貴者。

  32. 王生香 Wang Shengxiang (1902-1975)*
    whose given name was 「Jingting」 and who styled himself as 「Mailu Weng」, literally an old man who sells shoes, came from Feixian County, Shandong Province. When he was young, he studied qin playing under the mentorship of Wang Lu, a qin master of the Zhucheng School, Shandong. In 1948, he took up temporary residence in Nanjing and stayed in a Taoist temple in Xiye Mountain. More than ten qin hung on the wall of his room, and thus it was named 「Hall of Twelve Qin」. In the daytime, he made a living by selling shoes, while at night, he found pleasure in playing the qin, living quite a hard life. He was a core member of Nanjing Music Society in its early days. He notated a number of qin pieces and wrote multiple works such as Yeshan Qin Notations and Records of a Qin Hunt in Jinling (two volumes). In 1958, he was hired as librarian of Jiangsu Provincial Museum of History and Literature. He donated most of the famous qin in his collection to Nanjing Municipal Cultural Relics Management Commission, including 「Long Yin」 of the Tang Dynasty.
    王生香(1902 ~ 1975)名敬亭,號賣履翁。祖籍山東費縣。青年時師從山東諸城派琴人王露。1948 年,客居南京, 寓居西冶山道院,牆懸十餘張琴,謂「十二琴草堂」。日以賣履為生,夜以鼓琴為樂,生活 十分艱辛。曾是南京樂社早期骨幹之一。打譜多首琴曲,著有《冶山琴譜》、《金陵訪琴錄》 (二卷)等。1958 年被聘為江蘇省文史館館員。1966 年將所藏大部分名琴,如唐琴「龍吟」 等,捐獻給南京市文管會。

  33. 汪星伯 Wang Xingbo (1893-1979)
    whose given name was 「Jingxi」 and who styled himself as 「Fusheng」, came from a family originating in Anhui Province. Born into an honorable family in Suzhou, he studied at an old-style private school as a child and later was admitted into the preparatory schools of Dongwu University, Tsinghua University and Qingdao University successively. He was thoroughly accomplished in qin, qi, calligraphy, painting, seal-cutting, medicine and art appreciation. He learned epigraphy, calligraphy and painting from Chen Shizeng. With proficient knowledge in calligraphy and painting, he was once active in Shanghai’s cultural scene. For example, he had an intimate association with Wu Changshuo and taught Lu Xiaoman to paint. He also had a clinic and practiced medicine. Qin playing and collecting were his hobbies. He was a founding member of Suzhou Jinyu Qin Association.
    汪星伯(1893 ~ 1979)名景熙,號浮生。祖籍安徽。生於蘇州名門望族,幼讀私塾。先後考入東吳大學、清華 大學、青島大學預科。琴棋書畫、篆刻、鑒賞、醫學無不精通。曾師從陳師曾研習金石書畫。 書畫造詣頗深,曾活躍於上海文化圈,與吳昌碩交往甚深,陸小曼曾從其學習繪畫。曾開設 診所行醫。愛好彈琴、藏琴,是蘇州今虞琴社成立時的成員。

  34. 衛仲樂 Wei Zhongle (1908-1997)*
    whose family originally came from Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, was born in Shanghai. In his childhood, he suffered from poverty and led a vagrant life. He loved music and opera, and accordingly learned about musical instruments on his own. Ever since 1926, he had been in Da Tong Le Society where he studied about guqin from Zheng Jinwen and Wu Jianlan, and pipa playing from Wang Yuting. Zheng Jinwen spoke highly of him. In 1938, he was on tour performing for as long as seven months in more than 30 cities of America, which won him universal favorable comments. He had been serving on positions such as professor of Shanghai Conservatory of Music, vice-president and president of the Department of Chinese Folk Music since 1956. Since 1962, he had been vice-president in Shanghai Branch of Chinese Musicians Association. Besides guqin, he was also adept at other musical instruments such as flute, xiao (pan pipe), erhu and pipa.
    衛仲樂(1908 ~ 1997)原籍江蘇無錫,生於上海。幼年家境貧寒,顛沛流離,喜愛音樂戲曲,自學樂器。1926 年加入大同樂會,從鄭覲文、吳劍嵐習古琴,隨汪昱庭學琵琶,深得鄭覲文賞識。1938 年曾 在美國 30 多個城市演出長達 7 個月,大獲好評。1956 年起,任上海音樂學院教授及民樂系 副主任、主任等職。1962 年起,任中國音樂家協會上海分會副主席。除古琴外,還精通笛、 簫、二胡、琵琶等樂器。

  35. 吳干斌 Wu Ganbin (?-?)
    learned qin playing from Yue Ying. No other information is available.
    吳干斌(生卒年不詳)師承樂瑛,其餘資料不詳。

  36. 吳劍嵐 Wu Jianlan (1898-1983)
    whose given name was 「Sanmu」, also known as 「Wugou」, came from Changsha, Hunan Province. In his early years, he studied traditional Chinese medicine and taught himself ancient Chinese literature at the same time. As a professor at Fudan University, he gave lectures on Chinese literature, writing, and poetry. Having profound understanding of Buddhism, the qin art, and martial arts, he was also good at traditional Chinese painting and seal cutting. He published Wangranji, a collection of his works, and co-translated Selected Robajo Poems.
    吳劍嵐(1898 ~ 1983)字散木,別號吳鈎。湖南長沙人。早年從師學習中醫,同時自習中國古代文學。復旦大 學教授,曾主講大學國文、國文習作、詩詞選講等。通佛學、琴藝、武術,善國畫、篆刻。 著有《惘然集》,合譯有《魯拜詩選》。

  37. 吳景略 Wu Jinglüe (1907-1987)*   (also double CD)
    whose given name was 「Tao」, came from Changshu, Jiangsu Province. His courtesy name was 「Jinglue」 and his art name was 「Mansou」. He was fond of traditional stringed and woodwind instruments at his young age and learned from Zhao Jianhou, Zhou Shaomei and Wu Mengfei about musical instruments such as pipa, zheng, sheng and xiao (pan pipe). In 1927, He was tutored by Wang Duanpu, a qin master in Tianjin on qin playing and later also consulted with Xu Shaoqing and Li Mingde. He joined Jinyu Qin Association in 1936 and was hired as a contract communication researcher in the Research Institute of National Music at the Central Conservatory of Music. He worked as a guqin professor in China Conservatory of Music at the beginning of the 1960s. He was a professor of the Department of Chinese Folk Music in 1979 and at the same time elected as members of China Federation of Literary and Art Circles and Chinese Musicians Association National Music Committee. He was dedicated to deciphering tablature, explored and sorted away dozens of ancient qin compositions. With himself proficient at judging, fixing and manufacturing qin, he was able to manufacture the qin strings and rescued the traditional string-making skills. He wrote several essays and works about the art of qin, such as Textbook of Qi Xian Qin, Yu Shan Qin Talk, and Improvements of Guqin. His style was respectfully called as the 「Yu Shan Wu School」 due to his proficient knowledge and mastery in the art of guqin.
    吳景略(1907 ~ 1987)名韜,字景略,別號縵叟。祖籍江蘇常熟。少年時喜愛絲竹,師從趙劍候、周少梅、吳 夢非學習琵琶、箏、笙、簫等樂器。1927 年師從天津琴人王端璞習琴,後向徐少卿、李明德 求教。1936 年加入今虞琴社。1953 年被聘為中央音樂學院民族音樂研究所特邀通訊研究員, 20 世紀 60 年代,始任中國音樂學院古琴教授。1979 年任民樂系教授,並當選為中國文學藝 術聯合會委員、中國音樂家協會民族音樂委員會委員。他致力於打譜,發掘整理古代琴曲幾 十首,能鑒琴、修琴、斫琴,能研制琴弦,搶救傳統制弦工藝。著有《七弦琴教材》《虞山 琴話》《古琴改良》等琴學論著。古琴藝術造詣深湛,被尊稱為「虞山吳派」。

  38. 吳蘭蓀 Wu Lansun (1883-1960)
    whose given name was 「Jian」 and who styled himself as 「Lansun」, came from Hanshou, Hunan Province. When he was young, influenced by his private tutor, he took a deep affection towards guqin, then manufactured the instrument by himself and probed deeply into the art. And he had got all the qin art essence which was passed on to him from masters of the Lingnan School. He resided in Suzhou after 1912 and took himself to studying the qin art of the Shu School. In 1920, he once made his appearance at Shanghai Morning Breeze Hut Qin Meet along with his second son, Wu Zhaoji. In 1936, he took part in initiating the establishment of Suzhou Jinyu Qin Association.
    吳蘭蓀(1883 ~ 1960)名建,字蘭蓀,湖南漢壽人。少年時受私塾先生熏陶深愛古琴,便自己斫琴習之,深得 嶺南派琴人傳授。1912 年後長居蘇州,兼習熟派琴藝。1920 年,曾攜次子吳兆基赴上海晨 風廬琴會。1936 年,參與發起蘇州今虞琴社。

  39. 吳兆基 Wu Zhaoji (1908-1997)*
    whose courtesy name was 「Xiangquan」, son of qin master Wu Lansun, came from Hanshou, Hunan Province. He learned qin playing from his father in 1920 and was tutored by Wu Jinyang. Frequently coming along with his father to a lot of elegant gatherings where many qin players showed up, he was deeply inspired by the beauty of qin. Since his graduating from the Chemistry Department of Dongwu University, he had been committed to math teaching throughout his lifetime. Being a professor in the Math Department of Suzhou University, he held great influence in the educational circle. In 1986 he established Wu Men Qin Association with Xu Zhongwei, Ye Mingpei and Pei Jinbao. Martial arts had been his hobby since his childhood. Throughout his whole lifetime, he took deep affections towards qin playing and practicing qigong. He took charge of the compilation of Wu Men Qin Yun.
    吳兆基(1908 ~ 1997)字湘泉,湖南漢壽人,琴家吳蘭蓀之子。1920 年從父習琴。曾拜師吳浸陽。常隨父參加 琴人雅集,深受感染。1931 年畢業於東吳大學化學系,一生從事數學教學,任蘇州大學數學 系教授,在教育界頗有影響。1986 年與徐忠偉、葉名珮、裴金寶籌建吳門琴社。自幼好武術。 操縵習琴和太極氣功都是其平生所好。曾主持編寫《吳門琴韻》。

  40. 吳振平 Wu Zhenping (1907-1977)*
    whose given name was 「Long」, was known as his courtesy name, while his art names were 「He’an」 and 「Danshan」. He came from Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province and lived in Shanghai. Having learnt from Wu Lianyou about music since his childhood, he also inherited his family business of refining the ink paste and ran Shanghai Xiling Seal Art Society. He was adept at seal-cutting. The manuscripts of qin compositions that he jointly composed with Yao Bingyan still survive. He taught Yao Gongbai, son of Yao Bingyan, about qin playing.
    吳振平(1907 ~ 1977)名瓏,以字行,號和庵,又號儋山。浙江紹興人,居上海。幼年師從吳瀲游研習音律。承家學, 精制印泥,經營上海西泠印社。善長篆刻。其有與姚丙炎合作的琴譜手稿存世。姚丙炎之子 姚公白曾從其習琴。

  41. 夏蓮居 Xia Lianzhu (1884-1965)*
    whose given name was 「Jiquan」 and who styled himself as 「Puzhai」, 「Quyuan」, came from Yuncheng, Shandong Province. Born into a bureaucrat family in the Qing Dynasty, he was a remarkable Buddhist scholar, Jing sect practitioner, collector and guqin player of the 20th Century. He once went to Japan and changed his name to Xia Lianju after he returned. Then he led a life of seclusion in Tianjin and became a layman of the Jing sect of Bud- dhism. After the People’s Republic of China was established, he became vice chairman of Beijing Dongcheng District People’s Political Consultative Conference and made friends with Guo Moruo, Guan Pinghu, and Chen Yi, with whom he exchanged ideas concerning cultural relics and the qin art. He donated more than 300 pieces of large cultural relics he collected over the years to the Palace Museum, Shandong Museum and Yuncheng Museum of Literature and History. In his collections of qin, there were many treasures, including fa- mous qin like 「Hun Dun Cai」 and 「Yuan Xiao Qing Luo」.
    夏蓮居(1884 ~ 1965)名繼泉,字溥齋,號渠園,山東鄆城人。出身清期官宦之家,是 20 世紀傑出的佛教學者、 淨宗行人、收藏家和古琴演奏家。曾赴日本,回國後更名夏蓮居,隱居天津,作佛教淨宗居士。

  42. 夏一峰 Xia Yifeng (1883-1964) *
    with his original given name being 「Fuyun」, was from Huai’an, Jiangsu Province. His parents perished early in his childhood and left him in poverty. In 1895, while being a priest in a Taoist temple in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province, he studied flute and sang Kunqu Opera. Once, he came across Yang Ziyong, a qin master, playing the guqin for visitors in the temple, and consequently took Yang Ziyong as his mentor, making himself the first disciple of Yang’s. He then studied successively under the tutelage of five qin players of different schools and styles and co-founded the Qingxi Qin Association in 1935.

    (Addendum) His name is also written 夏一峯. The chart here places him with the Sichuan school but this seems to be a mistake as he is more closely associated with Nanjing and its 金陵派 "Jinling School". According to the introduction in Guqin Qu Huibian, which is a collection of tablature and staff notation for 17 pieces he played, his original name was 夏福雲 Xia Fuyun. In addition to being a qin teacher he managed a 善堂 charitable institution. The most important of his many teachers, 楊子鏞 Yang Ziyong (Yang Zirong), was a painter also from Huian; another important qin teacher was 喬子衡 Qiao Ziheng. Xia and Yang ran a scroll mounting shop together. According to Xia Yifeng's recollection, from 1898, when he taught his first student, he had altogether over 40 students.
    夏一峰(1883 ~ 1964)原名福雲,江蘇淮安人。幼時父母雙亡,家境貧寒。1895 年,入江蘇淮安一所道觀當道 士,習橫笛,唱崑曲。一次偶然機會遇琴家楊子鏞在觀內為遊客演奏古琴,遂拜楊子鏞為師, 為其開門弟子。曾先後師從五位不同派別的琴家。1935 年,參與組建青溪琴社。

  43. 向笙階 Xiang Shengjie (1895-1981)*
    born into a family with the tradition of qin playing, was a qin player from Shashi, Hubei Province. Residing in Qingyang Alley, which was a well-known neighborhood, he passed away in the 1960s to 1970s. He was adept at painting and collecting.
    向笙階(生卒年不詳)湖北沙市琴家,居住在當地著名的青楊巷內,20 世紀六七十年代去世。擅長繪畫與收藏。

  44. 謝孝蘋 Xie Xiaoping (1920-1998)*
    whose courtesy name was 「Lujiong」 and whose pseudonym was 「Zhou Yuan」, gave himself the art name of 「Leichao」. He was from Taizhou, Jiangsu Province. He learned from Wu Jinglue about qin playing in 1940. In 1941, he joined Jin Yu Qin Association in Shanghai and was tutored by Zhang Ziqian, Xia Yifeng, Wu Zonghan and Zha Fuxi, etc. Graduating from the Law Department of Dongwu University in 1942, he was engaged in diplomacy and later became an associate researcher of CASS Institute of History. Chronology of Chinese Qin Art, which he wrote, is an important document about chronicles of qin. He held broad and extensive knowledge. The papers he wrote about history, lexicography and guqin are edited into Writings of Leichao.
    謝孝蘋(1920-1998),字鹿埛,號雷巢,筆名周塬。江蘇泰州人。1940 年師從吳景略習琴,1941 年參加上海 今虞琴社,先後受教於張子謙、夏一峰、吳宗漢、査阜西等。1942 年畢業於東吳大學法學院。 曾從事外交工作,後為中國社會科學院歷史研究所副研究員。所撰寫的《中國琴藝紀年》是 一部關於琴史紀事的珍貴文獻。他學識淵博,其歷史、詞學及古琴文論被輯為《雷巢文存》。

  45. 熊淑婉 Xiong Shuwan (?-?)
    was a qin player from Shanghai, whose family originated from Jiangxi Province. She learned from Wu Jinyang and Wu Jinglue.
    熊淑婉(生卒年不詳)上海琴家,祖籍江西。師承吳浸陽、吳景略。

  46. 許健 Xu Jian (1923-2017; further)
    whose former name was 「Xu Jingyan」, his pseudonyms were 「Ai Yao」 and 「Yi Yan」, etc. Coming from Cixian, Hebei Province, he was a researcher of the Institute of Music of the Chinese National Academy of Arts and vice-president of Beijing Guqin Research Institute. In 1942, he studied in Chongqing Qingmuguan National Conservatory of Music. Once, he took the position of deputy director of Folk Music Research Department of the Institute of Music at the Chinese Academy of Arts. He was also a member of the Guqin Interviewing Group in 1956. He mainly dedicated himself to sorting out and researching qin compositions, and explored out multiple ancient notations. He took part in writing and editing music dictionaries such as Dictionary of Chinese Music and Encyclopedia of China (volume of music and dancing). First Compilation of Qin History which he wrote was published.
    許健(1923 ~ 2017)曾用名許景炎,筆名艾謠、尹炎等。河北磁縣人,中國藝術研究院音樂研究所研究員, 北京古琴研究會副會長。1942 年就讀於重慶青木關國立音樂院。曾任中國藝術研究院音樂研 究所民族民間音樂研究室副主任。1956 年古琴採訪小組成員之一。主要從事琴曲的整理與研 究工作,發掘多首古曲。參與《中國音樂詞典》、《中國大百科全書》(音樂舞蹈卷)等辭 書的編寫工作。撰寫出版《琴史初編》。

  47. 徐立蓀 Xu Lisun (1897-1969)*
    whose given name was 「Zhuo」 and who styled himself as 「Lisun」 or 「Liseng」, came from Nantong, Jiangsu Province. At a young age, he was tutored on qin playing, manufacturing, string making and music temperament by Wang Yanqing from Zhucheng. He also learned to play the pipa from Shen Zhaozhou and learned Western music from Li Shutong and Zhou Lingsun. In 1923, he sorted out the incomplete teaching manuscripts of Wang Yanqing along with Shao Dasu and compiled them into two volumes. They also added some qin compositions to them and titled the whole collection 「The Plum Doom Qin Anthology」 after the place where Wang used to teach the art. In 1929, with Shao Dasu again, he set up Mei An Qin Association and taught hundreds of people to play the qin. He wrote much about the qin art and music temperament. Besides, he was also adept at medicine and Qigong and wrote relevant books.
    徐立蓀(1897 ~ 1969)名卓,字立孫,號笠僧。祖籍江蘇南通。青年時師從諸城琴人王燕卿研習操琴、制琴、制弦、 音律,師從沈肇州習琵琶,師從李叔同、周鈴蓀習西樂。1923 年,與邵大蘇整理王燕卿授琴 殘稿,編訂兩卷,增加琴曲,以授琴地「梅庵」命名《梅庵琴譜》。1929 年,與邵大蘇創辦 梅庵琴社,授琴百人。他在琴學和音律上多有著述。此外,還精醫道、通氣功,著有多部醫書。

  48. 胥桐華 Xu Tonghua (女; 1905-1969)*
    was a female qin player from Baoying, Jiangsu Province. Born into a boatman family, she later moved to Yangzhou. Xu Zhongshan was her mentor. She took part in activities of Yangzhou Guangling Qin Association enthusiastically. She was also good at Kunqu opera.
    胥桐華(1905 ~ 1969),女,祖籍江蘇寶應。出身於船民家庭,遷居揚州。師從徐仲山,積極參加揚州廣陵琴社活動。 兼善崑曲。 3. 陳澤鍠(陳澤鍠)福建福州人。師從何振岱,善古琴、書畫,著有《琴趣樓詩》。(1905 ~ 2000) 福建福州人。師從何振岱,善古琴、書畫,著有《琴趣樓詩》。

  49. 徐曉英 Xu Xiaoying (女; 1937-2016)
    a female qin player whose pseudonym was 「Xiaying」, came from Quxian, Zhejiang Province. She had been learning Chinese ancient poetry from her father since her early childhood. Due to her father’s long and profound friendship with Xu Yuanbai, which was generated on the basis of poetry and qin, she started learning qin from him since 1954 following the Xinzhe School. After her father passed away, she acknowledged Zhang Weizhen as her tutor and later took in more advanced knowledge about qin playing from Zha Fuxi, Guan Pinghu, Wu Jinglue and Zhang Ziqian, etc. Since 1984, she had been a guqin teacher and guzheng teacher at Hangzhou Art School. In 2001, she established Xiaying Qin Hall, serving as president, and helped to set up branches all over Zhejiang Province. She wrote Xiaying Guqin Tutorial and the Music Section of the Annals of Hangzhou Culture and Arts. She also presided over the editing of Xiaying Qin Xun and participated in writing Guqin Art of the Xinzhe School, etc. She delivered several papers. All of what she had done in this field had contributed a lot to the dissemination of guqin culture in Hangzhou and the prosperity of the guqin art of Xinzhe School.
    She has recorded 10 melodies on her Hugo CD 浙音雅韻 (Elegant Sounds of Zhejiang; HRP7304-2; metal strings only)
    徐曉英(1937 ~ 2016),女,筆名霞影。浙江衢縣人。自幼隨父習古詩詞。因其父與徐元白詩琴相交久而深,故 1954 年從徐元白習浙派古琴,徐元白逝世後拜張味真為師,後從查阜西、管平湖、吳景略、 張子謙等繼續深造。自 1984 年,任杭州藝術學校古琴、古箏教師。2001 年成立霞影琴館,任館長,並協助在浙江省各地成立分館。編寫《霞影古琴教程》《杭州文化藝術志·音樂篇》 等,主編《霞影琴訊》,參與編寫《浙派古琴藝術》等,撰寫多篇論文,為杭州古琴文化的 傳播和浙派古琴的繁盛做出了較大貢獻。

  50. 徐元白 Xu Yuanbai (1893-1957)*
    who also styled himself as 「Yuanbo」, came from Haimen, Zhejiang Province. Affected by his father, he came under the tutelage of Master Daxiu, a qin master of Xinzhe School. Later he became lifelong friends with Zha Fuxi. Traveling around for qin study and making friends with players along the way, he learned the essence of different schools to improve his own skills. In the 1930s, he co-founded Suzhou Jinyu Qin Association and Nanjing Qingxi Qin Association. In 1946, he established Tianfeng Qin Association along with the players in Chongqing. He had hundreds of disciples. He compiled Heaven Wind Qin Anthology (one volume) which was not published though.
    徐元白(1893 ~ 1957)別署原泊。浙江海門人。受父影響,於 1912 年從浙派琴人大休法師學琴。後與査阜西 成莫逆之交。他遊學四方,廣結琴友,取各家之長以提高琴藝。20 世紀 30 年代,參與創立 蘇州今虞琴社和南京青溪琴社,1946 年與在渝琴人創立天風琴社。授業弟子數以百計。著有 《天風琴譜》一卷(末刊)。

  51. 薛志章 Xue Zhizhang (1905- ?)
    was from Wujin, Jiangsu Province. He was one of the early founders of the People’s Insurance Company of China, and writer of the earliest logotype of PICC. He held proficient knowledge in both guqin and seal cutting. In October 1954, he was elected as alternate director of Beijing Guqin Research Institute.
    薛志章(1905 ~ ?)江蘇武進人。中國人民保險公司早期創建人之一,人保公司名稱最早的標準字的書寫者。 古琴和篆刻都有較深造詣。1954 年 10 月被選為北京古琴研究會候補理事。

  52. 楊葆元 Yang Baoyuan (1899-1958)*
    whose given name was 「Qianzhai」, son of Yang Zongji, founder of the Jiuyi School, took his family business over. He organized Beiping Qin Learning Society along with Guan Pinghu, Zhang Boju, Pu Xuezhai and Wang Shixiang and was a cardinal member of Nanjing Qingxi Qin Association.
    楊葆元(1899 ~ 1958)字乾齋,九嶷派創始人楊宗稷之子,繼承家學。曾與管平湖、張伯駒、溥雪齋、王世襄 組織北平琴學社。南京青溪琴社主要成員。

  53. 楊清如 Yang Qingru (女; 1913-1995)*
    a female qin player from Chongqing, graduated from Sichuan Women’s Vocational School. She inherited the playing techniques handed down from the older generations of the family. She started playing at 14 and chose qin as her lifelong companion. In 1985, she was appointed as librarian in Chongqing Research Institute of Culture and History.
    楊清如(1913 ~ 1995),女,重慶人。四川省女子職業學校畢業。幼承家傳,14 歲開始撫琴,終生以琴為伴。 1985 年被聘為重慶市文史研究館員。

  54. 楊新倫 Yang Xinlun (1898-1990)*
    whose given name was 「Keding」 and who styled himself as 「Owner of Zhenyu Room」, came from Panyu, Guangdong Province. Having learned martial arts in his childhood, he was adept at boxing and later became honorary president of Guangzhou Chin Woo Athletic Federation. Starting from 1928, he learned to play the qin from Wang Shaozhen, Lu Jiabing and Zheng Jianhou. After 1953, he joined Guangdong Museum of History and Literature to study and teach the Lingnan School of the qin art. He was hired as a teacher for guqin majors in 1969 at the new Traditional Chinese Music Department of Guangdong Music Academy. Then in 1980, he co-founded Guangdong Guqin Research Institute and served as its president, which marked a new era for the Lingnan School of the qin art. He donated more than 20 famous guqin to the national authority, including the famous 「Xiaoyue」 (now in the collection of Shanghai Museum) which came from the collection of Ju Lian, founder of the Lingnan School of painting.
    楊新倫(1898 ~ 1990)字克定,號振玉齋主人。廣東番禺人。自幼習武,善拳藝,後為廣州精武體育會名譽會長。 1928 年始,師從王紹楨、盧家炳、鄭建候習琴。1953 年後,進入廣東省文史館從事嶺南琴 派教學與研究。1969 年,廣州音專民樂系設立古琴專業,聘其任教。1980 年,促成廣東古 琴研究會成立,任會長,標誌著嶺南古琴進入新的時代。曾將所藏 20 多張名琴捐獻給國家, 其中包括嶺南畫派創始人居廉收藏過的名琴「嘯月」(現存於上海博物館)。

  55. 姚丙炎 Yao Bingyan (1921-1983)*
    whose original name was 「Jiliang」, came from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Influenced by his father, he was fond of traditional stringed and woodwind instruments and adept at playing them. Wang Jianhou, a qin master, was the first teacher to introduce him into qin playing. In 1946, he was tutored by Xu Yuanbai, a qin master of the Xinzhe School. He once served on positions such as guest professor of guqin at Shanghai Conservatory of Music and vice-president of Shanghai Jinyu Qin Association. He was addicted to deciphering tablature, with Jiu Kuang, which he reconstructed, winning universal favor from qin players at home and abroad. He also wrote multiple papers about the art of qin. Adept at calligraphy, he had copied out some traditional qin tablature and expounded on photocopied manuscripts such as Discussions about Guqin Fingering of Chen Zhuo in the Tang Dynasty.
    姚丙炎(1921 ~ 1983)原名濟良。祖籍浙江杭州。受其父影響,喜絲竹,善樂器。其琴啓蒙於琴人汪劍候, 1946 年師從浙派琴家徐元白。曾任上海音樂學院客座古琴教授、上海今虞琴社副社長等。痴 迷於打譜,所打譜的《酒狂》深受海內外琴人喜愛。撰寫多篇琴學論文。擅書法,所抄琴譜、 著述《唐代陳拙論古琴指法》等影印手稿。

  56. 葉名珮/葉明佩 Ye Mingpei (女; 1929-)
    is a female qin player whose family originated from Wenzhou (many websites write her name both as 葉名珮 and 葉明佩 without explaining why; my guess is that 葉名珮 is correct). Her father was tutored by Wei Zhongle about qin playing. She started learning qin playing in 1943 and was instructed by Yang Ziyong, Zhang Ziqian, Xu Yuanbai and Li Mingde. In 1945, she began the study of Chinese traditional painting under the instruction of Zhang Daqian, a prominent painter in China. Being engaged in arts and statistics management, she was one of the founders of Suzhou Wumen Qin Association and served as vice president. (Image with Zhang Daqian; Active as teacher in Suzhou starting 1982; 2017 interview.)
    葉名珮(1929 ~;又作葉名珮),女,祖籍溫州。其父曾師從衛仲樂習琴。1943 年開始習琴,先後師從楊子鏞、張子謙、

  57. 俞伯蓀 Yu Bosun (1922-2013)
    whose family originated from Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, was born in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Due to the influence from his father, he had been reading classics and history, learning painting and calligraphy since his early childhood. At the age of 12, he studied about traditional drama in Oriental Drama School. At the age of 14, he was tutored about qin playing by Chen Yunru and Long Qinfang. He set up Gufeng Guoyue Society with his father in 1942. Then in 1945, he attended the activities of Datong Guoyue Society in Chongqing and also initiated the establishment of Shu Ya Qin Drama Society. Later he joined the art troupe of the army. After that, he worked at Sichuan Opera Theater and served again in Chengdu Culture and Art School. In 1985, he established Dong Po Poetry and Qin Association. In 2006, he set up Guqin Research Institute of Chengdu Yu Bosun Shu School. In the same year, he was awarded with Chinese Folk Music Lifetime Achievement Award by China Nationalities Orchestra Society.
    俞伯蓀(1922 ~ 2013)祖籍浙江紹興,生於四川成都。受其父影響,自幼讀經史,習書畫。12 歲入東方戲曲 學校學習戲曲。14 歲始,先後師從陳蘊儒、龍琴舫習琴。1942 年,與其父辦古風國樂社, 1945 年參加重慶大同國樂社活動,創辦蜀雅琴劇社。此後參軍,入部隊文工團,轉業至川劇 院,再任職於成都文化藝術學校。1985 年創辦東坡詩琴社。2006 年成立成都市俞伯蓀蜀派 古琴研究所,同年,中國民族管弦樂學會授予其「中國民樂終身成就獎」。

  58. 喻紹澤 Yu Shaoze (1907-1988)*
    whose given name was 「Run」, came from Chengdu, Sichuan Province. While attending old-styled private school in his childhood, he loved music and studied to play multiple folk musical instruments. When he was young, he learned qin playing from his uncle Liao Wenfu, a qin player of the Chuan School. After graduating as an English major from Sichuan Public Foreign Studies Academy, he taught English in a high school in the following 16 years. In 1956, recommended by Zha Fuxi, he became a full-time guqin teacher in Southwest Music Academy, predecessor of today’s Sichuan Conservatory of Music. He established Chengdu Lvhe Qin Association in 1937 with his brother and Pei Tiexia. In 1947, he set up Xiuming Qin Association. In the 1950s, he organized Classical Music Society along with Long Qinfang. Then in 1979, he created Chengdu Jinjiang Qin Association and served as president. He was also good at calligraphy, especially the small seal script and large seal script.
    喻紹澤(1903 ~ 1988)字潤。祖籍四川成都。幼年讀私塾,喜音樂,習多種民族樂器。少年時隨舅父川派琴 人廖文甫習琴。從四川公立外國語專科學校英語專業畢業後,在中學執教英語長達 16 年。 1956 年,經査阜西力薦,成為西南音樂專科學校(四川音樂學院前身)專職古琴教師。1937 年,與其兄弟及裴鐵俠等人組建成都律和琴社。1947 年組建秀明琴社。20 世紀 50 年代,與 龍琴舫一同組織古典音樂社。1979 年再次恢復組建成都錦江琴社並擔任社長。此外,擅書法, 尤精小篆和大篆。

  59. 樂瑛 Yue Ying (女; 1904-1974)*
    female and a native of Beijing, was the daughter of the owner of Yue’s Pharmacy, a famous medicine store in the late Qing Dynasty. She received strict traditional Chinese education as a girl, then in 1919 her father invited Jia Kuofeng, a disciple of the famous qin master Huang Mianzhi, to teach her to play the guqin. She learned the quintessence of Jia’s skills and also followed Guan Pinghu for a while. Her masterpieces include Three Times Drunk in Yueyang, Dragon's Song in the wide Blue Sea, Liezi Rides the Wind and Confucius Reads the Book of Changes. She joined Beijing Guqin Research Institute in 1954.

    (Addendum: In Guqin Collection #6 [which begins with four recordings by her] her name is Romanized as "Le Ying". In fact, although the character 樂 can be pronounced either "Le" or "Yue", her own family calls themselves "Yue". She is said first to have studied first with her father. Her teacher Jia Kuofeng also taught Pu Xuezhai - see above).
    樂瑛(1904 ~ 1974),女,北京人。其父系清末京城名藥店——樂家老鋪的主人。自幼受到傳統文化的嚴格教育。 1919 年,其父請京城著名琴家黃勉之弟子賈闊峰教其習琴,得真傳,也曾與管平湖相互參學, 擅長演奏《岳陽三醉》《滄海龍吟》《列子御風》《韋編三絕》等曲。1954 年加入北京古琴 研究會。

  60. 查阜西 Zha Fuxi (1 CD; compare 3 CD set; 1895-1976)*
    whose given names were 「Zhenhu」, 「Yiping」 and who styled himself as 「Fuxi」 and 「Owner of Zhaoyu Room」, came from Xiushui, Jiangxi Province. He attended old-styled private school as a child and later studied in a navy academy and an aviation school. He had been engaged in aviation for a long time. When he was young, he played the xiao (pipe), sang Xuetang Yuege (school songs) and watched his teacher, Xia Boqin, play the qin and sing qin ge (songs accompanied by the qin). Later he learned on his own. In 1917, he came to know about ancient traditional qin notation. After that, he made acquaintance with Shen Caonong and studied playing the qin under his tutelage. In 1922, he attended the elegant gatherings of Yinyin Qin Association where he interacted with Li Boren, Peng Zhiqing and others on the qin art in Changsha. Later on, he sought out mentors everywhere, made acquaintances by sharing enthusiasm for qin extensively and practiced diligently. For these, he was later known as 「Zha Xiaoxiang」. In 1936, he set up Jinyu Qin Association along with other qin players in Suzhou and Shanghai. During that period, he came into contact with more than 200 players from various associations all over the country, making unprecedented impact and shaping a national center for guqin-themed gatherings. At the same time, he served as an editor-in-chief for a qin publication Jinyu and wrote the opening remarks of the inaugural issue. He initiated Beijing Guqin Research Institute, launched academic research on and performed guqin music after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. He took the position as vice-president of Chinese Musicians Association, chairman of Chinese Instrumental Music Department of the Central Conservatory of Music, and president of Beijing Guqin Research Institute. In 1956, he conducted a massive guqins interview along with Wang Di and Xu Jian and collected a large quantity of precious guqin recordings, documents and guqin in kind, which was a milestone in the history of guqin art. He started to write on guqin at an early age and devoted himself to exploring and sorting out relevant documents in his late years.

    Zha compiled Guide to Existing Guqin Pieces in Tablature, Biographies of Qin players of all Dynasty, and Editorial Glance at Surviving Guqin Fingerings. He served as editor-in-chief for the Grand Anthology of Qin Music and co-authored Elementary Introduction to Guqin. His writings about qin art are collected in Souboji and Soubo Bieji. He organized the rescue and rearrangement of guqin legacies. He presented both detailed analysis and concise summaries to the collection of qin books and notations, the compilation of qin music, the research of ancient fingering techniques, recording of qin players, biographies of ancient master players, deciphering and authentication of significant ancient notations. He contributed hugely to the inheritance and further development of the qin art.
    查阜西(1895 ~ 1976)名鎮湖,又名夷平,字阜西,號照雨室主人。祖籍江西修水。幼讀私塾,後就讀海軍學 校、航空學校。長期從事航空事業。少年時吹簫,唱學堂樂歌,看私塾先生夏伯琴彈唱琴歌, 後自學。1917 年,始知古琴還有琴曲,之後在上海結識沈草農,從其習琴曲。1922 年,在 長沙參加愔愔琴社雅集,與李伯仁、彭祉卿等人交流琴藝。此後,廣泛尋師結友,勤奮練琴,「查 瀟湘」的美名隨之而來。1936 年,先後在蘇州和上海與琴家創建今虞琴社,期間聯繫各地各 琴社琴人 200 余人,影響空前,儼然成為全國古琴聯誼中心,同時主編琴刊《今虞》,撰寫《發 刊詞》。中華人民共和國成立後發起組織北京古琴研究會,開展古琴音樂的學術探討和演奏 實踐,任中國音樂家協會副主席、中央音樂學院民族器樂系主任、北京古琴研究會會長等職。 1956 年,率王迪、許健進行了一次大規模的古琴採訪,蒐集了大量珍貴的古琴錄音、古琴文 獻、古琴實物,這是古琴音樂發展史上具有里程碑意義的重大事件。早年便開始撰寫古琴文論, 晚年全身心致力於琴學文獻的整理與研究。

    曾編纂《存見古琴曲譜輯覽》《歷代琴人傳》《古琴指法譜字輯覽》,主編《琴曲集成》等,合著《古琴初階》,其琴學文論結集為《溲渤集》 《溲渤別集》。他組織搶救和整理古琴遺產,在琴書(譜)蒐集、琴曲集成、古指法研究、 琴人錄音、古代琴人傳、打譜考證有歷史影響的琴曲等方面,既有細緻的分析,又有宏大的 歷史總結,為古琴的保護與傳承做出了重大貢獻。

  61. 詹澄秋 Zhan Chengqiu (詹澂秋; 1887-1969)*
    whose given name was 「Zhijun」 and who styled himself as 「Shuiyun」, 「Xiangyang Learned Man」, and 「Man in Green Window」, came from Xiangyang, Hubei Province. Trained at a family school on Chinese classics when he was young, he taught himself to play the qin under the influence of some literati in 1909. Then in 1912, he continued to study the art under the tutelage of Wang Xinkui, a player of the Zhucheng School. Graduating from Shandong Law and Politics School, he was later appointed as Chinese teacher at Jinan Municipal High School. After the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, he worked at Shandong Museum of Literature and History. In 1957, he led the construction of Jinan Society of Guqin Research. His works include Qin Notations in Meiyun Hall (four volumes), He Ping Zheng Yin (three volumes), Scroll of Songs (one volume), Se Notations (two volumes). His collection contained Qin Pu Zheng Lv (manuscripts by Wang Lengquan) and more than 20 qin from the Tang, Song, Ming and Qing dynasties.
    詹澄秋(1890 ~ 1973)名智濬,字水雲,號襄陽學人,筆名碧窗里人。祖籍湖北襄陽。自幼家塾國學。1909 年 受文人影響自習古琴。1912 年師從諸城派琴人王心葵習琴。畢業於山東法政學校,後任濟南 市立高中國文教師,中華人民共和國成立後為山東省文史館館員。1957 年籌建濟南古琴研究 會。輯有《梅雲館琴譜》(四卷)、《和平正音》(三卷)、《歌卷》(一卷)、《瑟譜》(二 卷),藏《琴譜正律》(王冷泉手稿),藏唐、宋、明、清古琴 20 余張。

  62. 張寶亭 Zhang Baoting (?-?)
    from 武漢 Wuhan, learned from 張孔山 Zhang Kongshan, including 流水 Liu Shui.
    武漢人(生卒年不詳)從張空山學「流水」。

  63. 張舜臣 Zhang Shunchen (1893- ?)
    whose original given name was 「Jiangui」, came from Tengchong, Yunnan Province. Graduating from Class C of Yunnan Military Academy, he served as head educator in Yunnan Military Academy Shaoguan Branch, chief of the artillery regiment of the Third Division of Yunnan Army quartered in Guangdong, chief of staff and acting commander of the Second Corps of Yunnan Army. Later he served as vice governor of Gansu Province. After arriving in Chongqing, he made friends with many local celebrities, took qin, qi, calligraphy and painting as his hobbies, and quitted the political circle completely. In 1964, he was hired at Yunnan Provincial Research Museum of Literature and History.
    張舜臣(1893 ~ ?)原名鑒桂,雲南騰衝人。雲南陸軍講武學堂丙班畢業。曾任雲南陸軍講武學校韶關分校 教育長,駐粵滇軍第三師炮兵團團長、第二軍參謀長、代軍長。後任甘肅省副省長。到重慶後, 結交重慶各界名流,愛好琴棋書畫,徹底脫離政界。1964 年受聘為雲南省文史研究館館員。

  64. 張育瑾 Zhang Yujin (1915-1981)*
    whose given name was 「Jingyu」 and whose courtesy name was 「Yujin」, was from Jiaonan, Shandong Province. He was tutored about qin playing by his father-in- law Wang Xiunan, a qin master of Zhucheng School. In his early years, he worked in Shandong University. In 1960, he served as the deputy director and a guqin teacher in the Music Department of Shandong Academy of Arts. Later he transferred to be head of the Administrative Department of Shandong Institute of Oceanography. In 1961, he set up Jinan Guqin Research Association with Zhan Chengqiu and served as president. He had sorted out with his wife Wang Fengxiang Tong Yin Shan Guan Qin Pu, which was the earliest qin notation transcript of the Zhucheng School and passed down from Wang Jifu, and also attached its numbered musical notations. In order to avoid the situation where related documents would possibly be lost to the world forever, he organized imprinting Qin Pu Zheng Lv in time and wrote multiple papers about guqin, which was a great contribution to the dissemination and research of the Zhucheng School qin music.
    張育瑾(1915 ~ 1981)名景玉,字育瑾。祖籍山東膠南。師從岳父諸城派琴人王秀南。早年任職山東大學, 1960 年任山東藝術專科學校音樂科副主任,教授古琴,後轉任山東海洋學院行政科科長。 1961 年與詹澄秋共建濟南古琴研究會,任會長。曾與夫人王鳳襄整理王既甫傳授的諸城琴派 最早琴譜抄本《桐蔭山館琴譜》,並附簡譜。為避免古琴文獻失傳,及時組織刻印《琴譜正律》。 撰寫多篇古琴文論,為諸城派的傳播和研究做出了重要貢獻。

  65. 張正吟 Zhang Zhengyin (1910-1995)
    whose original given name was 「Zhenying」 and whose another name was 「Zhixi」, came from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Since he graduated from the Art Department of National Central University in 1937, he had been an art teacher till his retirement. Meanwhile, he held another position as a painter in Nanjing Art Academy. Tutored by Xia Yifeng and Liu Shaochun about qin playing, he set up Nanjing Music Society with Xia Yifeng and Gan Tao, etc., where he served as managing director in 1954. He enlightened Li Yuxian and Gong Yi about qin playing. Dedicated to the collection of guqin, he had collected more than 20 guqin originated from the Southern Song, Ming and Qing dynasties, one of which was even authenticated by experts as a relic of Li Qingzhao, a woman poet of the Southern Song Dynasty. Afterwards, the qin was handed down to Gong Yi, former head of Shanghai Chinese Orchestra and student of Zhang Zhengyin. Gong Yi then denominated it as 「Zheng Yin Qin」.
    張正吟(1910 ~ 1995)原名鎮瀛,別名志熙。江蘇南京人。1937 年於中央大學美術系畢業後任美術教師直至退休, 同時兼任南京畫院畫師。師從夏一峰、劉少椿習琴,與夏一峰、甘濤等於 1954 年組織南京樂社, 任總幹事。曾啓蒙李禹賢、龔一等習琴。致力於古琴收藏,集有南宋、明、清時期古琴 20 余張, 其中一張被專家鑒定為南宋女詞人李清照遺物,後傳給高足、原上海民樂團團長龔一先生。 龔一將該琴定名為「正吟琴」。

  66. 張子謙 Zhang Ziqian (1899-1991)*
    was also known as 「Yichang」 or 「Ziqian」. His family came from Yizheng, Jiangsu Province. As a child, he was tutored by Sun Shaocong, a qin master of the Guangling School, in an old-styled private school. Deeply influenced by Sun, he could play a number of qin pieces when he was still a teenager. At age of 23, he left home and went to make a living in Tianjin where he became a bosom friend with Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing and the three soon made a name as the 「Three Heroes in Pudong」 (respectively known as Zha Xiaoxiang, Peng Yuge and Zhang Longxiang). He co-founded the Jinyu Qin Association in Suzhou in 1936 and was keen in editing and publishing the Jinyu magazine. He served as guqin player in Shanghai Chinese Orchestra in 1956 and later held an additional position as guqin professor at Shanghai Conservatory of Music. In the late 1970s when Jinyu Qin Association was revived, he served as president at the age of 80. In 1988, he was employed as honorary professor at Tianjin Conservatory of Music. He placed great emphasis on qin notation and wrote multiple papers about the qin art. Among his writings, Fundamentals of Guqin and Cao Man Suo Ji (Zhang’s diary of qin playing) remain important for qin-related research even today.
    張子謙(1899 ~ 1991)名益昌,字子謙。祖籍江蘇儀徵。幼時私塾老師是廣陵派琴家孫紹陶,受其熏陶,十餘 歲已能演奏多首琴曲。23 歲離鄉到天津謀生,與著名琴家查阜西和彭祉卿結為知音,「浦東 三傑」(「查瀟湘」「彭漁歌」「張龍翔」)從此在琴壇傳為美談。1936 年在蘇州參與創辦 今虞琴社,熱衷於《今虞》琴刊編輯。1956 年任上海民族樂團古琴演奏員,後兼任上海音樂 學院古琴教授。20 世紀 70 年代末,今虞琴社恢復活動,他以 80 歲高齡出任社長。1988 年 被天津音樂學院聘為名譽教授。他重視打譜,撰寫多篇琴學文論,其中參與編寫的《古琴初階》 及琴學日記《操縵瑣記》都是古琴學習研究的重要文獻。

  67. 招鑒芬 Zhao Jianfen (1877-1968)
    whose given name was 「Xue’an」, styled himself as 「Owner of Plum Eavesdropping Tower」, 「Ordinary Man in the South Sea」 and 「Old Man in Postal Kiosk」. Born in Nanhai, Guangdong Province, he was good at poetry and painting, and had a hobby of collecting. Throughout his lifetime, he was committed to the postal industry. In 1913, he learned to play qin from Gu Minqing, a famous qin player and musician in Changsha. In 1917, along with Gu Zhuoqun, Peng Zhiqing, Jiang Zijian and Gu Zheqing, etc., he established Yinyin Qin Association. He also co-founded Yuanyin Qin Association with Fu Xiaxian in Taiyuan in 1921. He authored multiple works including Bamboo Notations in Plum Eavesdropping Tower (two volumes), Understanding of Painting in Plum Eavesdropping Tower (three volumes) and Random Scrawl in Plum Eavesdropping Tower (one volume), but unfortunately none of them went to press.
    招鑒芬(1877 ~ 1968)字學庵,號聽梅樓主人、南海布衣、郵亭老卒。廣東南海人。能詩、擅畫、愛收藏,畢 生從事郵政工作。1913 年師從長沙琴人顧敏卿習琴。1917 年與顧卓群、彭祉卿、蔣子堅、 顧哲卿等人成立愔愔琴社。1921 年在太原與傅俠仙創辦元音琴社。著有《聽梅樓竹譜》(二 卷)、《聽梅樓畫識》(三卷)、《聽梅樓偶記》(一卷),均未刊行。

  68. 趙義正 Zhao Yizheng (?-?)
    learned from Xu Yuanbai.
    趙義正(生卒年不詳)師從徐元白。

  69. 趙子雲 Zhao Ziyun (1941-1996)
    was a qin player from Shanghai, whose parents were both historians. His brother and he both were tutored about chess and guqin by Guo Tongfu. In later years, both of them grew into well-known qin masters and amateur chess players in Shanghai.
    趙子雲(1941 ~ 1996)上海琴家。父母皆為歷史學家,兄弟二人皆師從琴家郭同甫先生學習圍棋和古琴,後兄 弟二人都成長為上海知名的業餘棋手和琴家。

  70. 周桂菁 Zhou Guijing (?-?)
    was a qin player of Lingnan School from Liuyang, Hunan Province, while his family had been living in Guangzhou for generations. He was proficient at poetry, verse and qin playing. He named his living room as 「Qin Yan Xuan」 (the room of qin and inkstone). In 1961, he took part in the guqin concert held by Guangdong Musician Association. He passed away in the 1960s or 1970s.
    周桂菁(生卒年不詳)湖南瀏陽人。嶺南派琴家,擅詩詞、彈琴。世居廣州,居室名為「琴硯軒」。1961 年曾 參加廣東音協舉辦的古琴音樂會。20 世紀六七十年代去世。

  71. 周吉蓀 Zhou Jisun (1901-1969)*
    whose given name was 「Jinxi」, styled himself as 「Jisun」. He was the eldest son of Zhou Jiheng, an honest merchant in Changsha. Deeply influenced by his private school teacher’s qin skills when he was young, he followed Gu Zheqing and Gu Zhuoqun of the Chuan School. He joined Nanxun Qin Association and Yinyin Society successively together with Gu Meigeng, who was his classmate.
    周吉蓀(1901 ~ 1969)名晉禧,號吉蓀,為長沙義賈周季衡老先生長子。讀私塾時,受啓蒙老師琴藝熏陶,拜 在川派琴家顧哲卿、顧卓群門下,與顧梅羹同門受業,先後一同加入南薰琴社和愔愔琴社。

  72. 朱惜辰 Zhu Xichen (1924-1958)*
    came from Nantong, Jiangsu Province. He initiated his interest towards qin under the influence of his classmates who studied qin playing and from whom he also learned about guqin fingering. Later he was tutored by Chen Xinyuan, from whom he had mastered the essence of Mei’an Qin School at a proficient and excellent level. Also via Chen Xinyuan’s introduction, he then learned qin playing from Xu Lisun. In 1958, he tied his body to stones and drowned himself.
    朱惜辰(1924 ~ 1958)原名錫辰,祖籍江蘇南通。因同學習琴,引發了他對琴的最初興趣,並從其學習古琴指法。 後師從陳心園,深得梅庵風韻。後經陳心園引薦,師從徐立蓀習琴。1958 年辭世。

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Sitong Shenpin, 1950-1970
The project carried out by Zha Fuxi is dated to 1955. As for why the 274 recordings here in 絲桐神品 Sitong Shenpin are said to date from "1950 to 1970", perhaps the Institute had already made a few recordings before Zha Fuxi began his project in 1955; and he also continued this collection work (and the related editing) after the project officially ended. Presumably, though, the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) brought these old style recordings to an end, though perhaps also leading to such works as Zha Fuxi's own Great Leap Forward Song.
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2. Jue Xiang from Tao Bao Details of this set are given here.
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3. The Chinese National Academy of Arts (中國藝術研究院)
The recordings here came from a project of collecting guqin instruments, other materials and recordings led by Zha Fuxi said to have begun in the mid 1950s. This project would have taken place within the National Academy of Music (中國音樂研究所 Zhongguo Yinyue Yanjiu Suo). The materials now belong to Chinese National Academy of Arts, a research institution formed in 1980 by combining the National Academy of Music with the 中國戲劇研究院 National Academy of Traditional Opera and the 中國美術研究所 National Academy of Fine Arts.

The names and in particular their translations change, making tracing the precise history difficult. Plus, nowadays an internet search for the National Academy of Arts usually directs you to only the fine arts academies such as the 中國美術學院 China Academy of Fine Art (Hangzhou and Shanghai) or the 中央美術學院 Central Academy of Fine Art (Beijing). Confusion is increased by some of the same institutes having versions in Taiwan.
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Return to the Guqin ToC.