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094. Moufu Admonishes his Lord
- yu mode, standard tuning:2 5 6 1 2 3 5 6
- also called Good Advice Poem 3
Moufu Kuang Jun
一名祈招詩 Qizhao Shi
Mistakes corrected in the original Section 4 4
The present lyrics are quoted in the Zuo Zhuan8 as part of a later story. Here King Ling of Chu (r. 541-529),9 who has been aggressive towards his neighbors and neglectful of his proper duties, does not heed advice from his retainer, Zige. Zige then relates to King Ling the story of Moufu admonishing King Mu, quoting the poem Qizhao Shi. Although King Ling then tries to follow this advice, he is unable to do so. As a result he loses his throne.
The original admonition by Moufu, as told in the Annals of History,10 is quite lengthy. King Mu was about to attack a tribal group some distance from home. Moufu, quoting not the Qizhao Shi but some lines (later) included in the Book of Poetry,11 says that although a king might attack a near neighbor who offends him, he should be much more careful about venturing so far afield as this.
The result of King Mu not taking the advice is related in Annal 5 of the Annals of History.12 Here it says that King Mu, who had become very fond of a certain Zao Fu because of his skill as a good driver, took a chariot with eight (or four) horses and went on an extended tour of the West, with no thought of returning home. King Yan of Xu13 took advantage of this to revolt, and so King Mu had to rush home to quell the rebellion.
In his set of poems called Letting My Feelings Arise While Resting in My Studio (Zhai Ju Gan Xing) the neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi (1130-1200) commented on this as follows:14
The legalist philosophical text Han Feizi reports that King Yan of Xu was a virtuous ruler but he lost his kingdom. This is presented as evidence that kings must be strong as well as virtuous.15
There seem to be an unusually large number of mistakes in the tablature. Perhaps the last sentence of the original preface suggests that Wang Zhi had noticed the mistakes on an old manuscript, but didn't think he knew the melody well enough to correct it himself.16
My reconstruction is incomplete, and there are no available recordings.
Original preface (not finalized)17
Music and Lyrics 18
Nine sections (untitled)
- each section begins by setting the Qizhao Shi to music. These lyrics are as follows (see with original text):
(Not yet recorded)
00.00 Closing harmonics
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Moufu Kuang Jun 謀父匡君
6557.0/#6 謀父 says 姓也 surname; no mention of music. Moufu Kuang Jun is the 94th piece in 西麓堂琴統 Xilutang Qintong, compiled by 汪芝 Wang Zhi.
Yu mode (羽調 yu diao)
See Shenpin Yu Yi.
祈招詩 Qizhao Shi
25205.13 祈招 Qizhao says it is the name of a 詩 shi; no mention of music. Watson (see below) says Qi Zhao is one of the lost odes, and there is disagreement about how to translate the title. Suggestions include Seeking Brightness, and Seeking Return as well as Ode of Good Advice.
The text together with transliteration and my translation are given below. Others are mentioned
below. The original text can be found online at the CTP.
Image: Uncharacteristic mistakes
This image of Section 4 shows corrections made in the text. Such corrections are unusual in this handbook. Nevertheless, a number of mistakes still remain.
Tracing Moufu Kuang Jun
Zha Guide 21/189/375 lists only this one occurrence.
謀父祭公 Moufu Duke of Zhai
謀父祭公 Moufu Duke of Zhai (or Ji) is mentioned in several early sources. The "fu" in Moufu literally means "father". It could also mean "old man", but at that time it seems to have been commonly found as a suffix to a name.
King Mu of Zhou (周穆王 Zhou Mu Wang)
King Mu (r. 956-918), mentioned here in both Annal 4 (ref) and Annal 5 (ref), is also mentioned in several other early sources.
Zuo Zhuan reference
The lyrics here actually change two characters in the first line, replacing 式昭 with 昭尔. The Zuo Zhuan version is translated in Burton Watson, The Tso Chuan, NY, Columbia U. Press, 1989. pp.166-167. Legge's is on p. 640 of V. The Ch'un Ts'ew. Traditionally the 左傳 Zuo Zhuan was considered to be a commentary on the 春秋 Spring and Autumn Annals.
楚靈王 King Ling of Chu
His advisor is 子革 Zige.
Annals of History reference 1
In Annal 4; see Nienhauser, Vol. I. p.67. The reference for the other story is below.
Book of Poetry Reference
The poem quoted is the last five lines of Shi Jing #273
Annals of History reference 2
In Annal 5 (Nienhauser, Vol. I, p.88). 造父 Zao Fu is said later to have been an ancestor of 秦 Qin.
徐偃王 King Yan of Xu
Nienhauser, I, p. 88 fn 25 says Yan lived in the early 7th century BCE. 3/981 徐偃王 Xu Yan Wang quotes stories from 荀子 Xunzi (非相 Feixiang 5.5), 韓非子 Han Feizi (五蠹 Wudu), Shiji and elsewhere. The stories don't agree, but generally tell of a virtuous ruler who was not strong enough ("Yan" means cease or desist).
Letting My Feelings Arise While Resting in My Studio (齋居感興 Zhaiju Gan Xing)
The whole poem by Zhu Xi has twenty sections. The quote above is the last line of Section 4; the whole section is:
See also 3/397 徐方, which also quotes this poem.
Han Feizi reference
See Watson translation "Five Vermin" Chapter 49 (五蠹 Wudu) Section 4 (CTP). Here two virtuous rulers are compared:
N.B. King Yan lived after King Wen!
Why not make corrections?
The original says, "此篇音調古雅，識者當自得之." Zhu Quan may have expressed a similar reticense in Shen Qi Mi Pu.
The original afterword is as follows,
Translation is so far tentative.
The poem, as included in the Zuo Zhuan with transliteration and translation added, is as follows:
Sī wǒ wáng dù, shì rú yù, shì rú jīn.
It considers (the accuracy of) our king's measures and movements, to be as valuable as his gems or gold.
Xíng mín zhī lì, ér wú zuì bǎo zhī xīn.
His regulations should be appropriate to the people's capabilities, and he should not have the heart of a drunkard or glutton.
Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.