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Zhu Quan's Tea Manual 1
Cha Pu (1439) 
Sample page: opening essay2                          

The influence of Zhu Quan (1378 - 1448) on tea culture, according to some recent writings, could be considered quite comparable to his influence on opera and guqin.3 This assertion is apparently based on claims for the way he advocated loose leaf tea after his father Zhu Yuanzhang, the Hongwu Emperor, supposedly banned the manufacture of tea bricks (compacted green tea leaves4) near the beginning of his rule (1368-98).5

At the time, the tea trade was a government monopoly. Such non-Han peoples as the Mongols and Tibetans had developed a taste for tea, making it the major Chinese barter item in the government's need to acquire horses. There was apparently a lot of corruption in this trade, and so the emperor's ban on the production of compressed tea bricks in favor of the "less currency-ready loose leaf tea" is said to be part of his effort to stop the corruption in this trade (which was supposed to take place only in certain markets). It has also been written that the ban was to relieve the suffering of the peasants, suggesting that compacting the tea into cakes made their job more difficult.6

More likely is another account, one that says that in 1391 the Hongwu emperor demanded that tribute tea, sent to him personally, be loose leaf rather than brick.7 There could have been political or economic reasons behind this, or it might simply have reflected the emperor's own preference in drinking tea.

Zhu Quan's rôle, then, was to advocate and describe methods of steeping the loose leaf style of tea demanded by his father.8 Zhu Quan also, in addition to describing new methods of preparing tea, "clearly indicated that his fondness of tea was to use tea as a medium to express his lofty aspirations and to cultivate his moral character rather than to love the taste of tea itself."9 Many websites copy this information, also adding that Zhu invented a tea stove called "Koojiejun" (sic.).10

Zhu Quan's Tea Manual was apparently the first book on tea published during the Ming dynasty. Some parts seem to describe new practices; others seem to copy earlier descriptions.11 The brief introduction in Wikipedia says that in it Zhu Quan "advocated a simpler way of steeping loose tea, a radical departure from the sophisticated tea cake (i.e., brick tea) ceremony of Tang and Song dynasty, thus pioneered a new era in Chinese Tea Culture."

Nevertheless, it is not at all clear how widely this text circulated.12 Although it may originally have been printed, apparently all that survives is a hand copied version preserved in the Nanjing library.13 As yet I have not been able to see this, so do not yet know if it includes the illustrations that presumably accompanied Zhu Quan's original edition. A modern edition was published in Shanghai in 1997, but I have also not yet been able to see that.14

On the other hand the actual text (without illustrations) is now quite widely available, both online and in hard copy.15 These versions all have basically the same text (see appendix).

All this must be taken into consideration in analyzing Zhu Quan's influence on tea. Some present commentators have suggested that his Tea Manual had little circulation, in it he was largely describing (and/or advocating) existing trends, and this information was available elsewhere. Nevertheless, he might have spread his ideas outside the Manual, and his stature at that time could have given his advocacy considerable influence. In addition, if now his Tea Manual can be used to understand and, even more, re-create early tea and its customs, then indeed his importance in tea might be considered quite as important as his influence on our understanding the history of Chinese opera or on our understanding of and reconstructing the music of the qin. Here, it must be remembered, Zhu Quan made available a large amount of early music that might otherwise have disappeared, and this music can now be reconstructed and performed following the principles of historically informed performance. Could such a thing be done with tea?16

An outline of Zhu Quan's Tea Manual is as follows:

Contents of Zhu Quan's Tea Manual 17
(The Appendix has the original text plus tentative translations for much of this; see also Tea Terms 2010)


Tea Manual (Opening essay)

(Sixteen sections)

  1. 品茶 pin cha
  2. 收茶 shou cha
  3. 點茶 dian cha
  4. 熏香茶法 xunxiang cha fa
  5. 茶爐 cha lu
  6. 茶竈 cha zao
  7. 茶磨 cha mo
  8. 茶碾 cha nian
  9. 茶羅 cha luo
  10. 茶架 cha jia
  11. 茶匙 cha chi
  12. 茶筅 cha xian
  13. 茶甌 cha ou
  14. 茶瓶 cha ping
  15. 煎湯法 jian tang fa
  16. 品水 pin shui
selecting tea
storing tea
whisking tea 
scenting tea method                
tea brazier 
tea stove (kujiejun?)
tea mill 
tea roller 
tea sieve 
tea stand  
tea spoon 
tea whisk 
tea cups 
tea pitcher 
water heating method 
classifying water 
There are some inconsistencies in the various versions.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. 朱權 Zhu Quan and his Tea Manual (茶譜 Cha Pu, 1439 or 1440)
31686.217 茶譜 mentions only a book of this title by 毛文錫 Mao Wenxi. H. T. Huang (Needham, p. 516) dates that book 925 and calls it Tea Compendium, saying it describes the tea of different areas. He then calls Zhu Quan's Cha Pu Tea Discourse, saying it describes the "art of handling, preparing and drinking tea". The linked image says it was 涵虛子臞仙書 written by the Master of the Vessel of Emptiness (Zhu Quan). Note that the image of Zhu Quan in a footnote with his bio is a statue at Wuyi Shan in Fujian, regarding which see Record of Wuyi Shan.

I have not seen the Chinese original. A Chinese reference says of the Tea Manual:

The short Wikipedia page has links for further information.

2. Sample page: opening essay in Zhu Quan's Tea Manual (Cha Pu) (See also the statue Zhu Quan and Tea)
Based on the online versions of the text, the image above is the third page of text in the Cha Pu; it was taken from the internet as was this image of what seems to be second and third pages, the second page having only 惟清哉涵虛子臞仙書, i.e., the last nine characters of the preface. The appendix below says something about the source of the text as well as including a copy of the text of the sample page above. There does not yet seem to be a translation into English.

3. Reputation of the Tea Manual
Over and over one can read on the internet that Zhu Quan's "most famous book book was his Cha Pu". In fact, as can be seen from the information on this page, it is more likely that his book was quite unknown until someone wrote this on the internet and, with tea's increasing popularity, people are perhaps now making the statement true for the present. This, however, does not mean that his book was not then, or cannot be now, of some importance (see further comment).

4. Teabricks/brick tea
Names for forms of compacted tea leaves include 沱茶 tuocha, 餅茶 bingcha, 磚茶 zhuancha (24983.xxx), etc.; today these are mostly applied to 普洱茶 puer tea (bolei in Cantonese). 31686.212 says 茶餅 茶磚也 chabing are chazhuan, i.e., teacakes are the same as teabricks; for teacakes and fruitcakes eaten while drinking tea, see .85 茶食 chashi and .59 茶果 chaguo.

5. Ban on tea bricks by the 洪武 Hongwu Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋 1328 - 1398) ruled from 1368 to 1398 as the first emperor of the Ming dynasty. In 1383 his court re-established the a Tea Horse Department (31686.105 茶馬司 Cha Ma Si, originally set up during the Song dynasty; Wiki: 茶馬) in order to control the bartering of tea (and a few other commodities) for horses, mainly from Mongols and Tibetans. If he actually did establish a total ban on the manufacturing of teabricks, this would have to be one of the most important acts in the history of tea, worth more than an unelaborated repeat mention on the internet.

More logical than such a total ban is the ban on brick tea being sent to the emperor himself (tribute tea), as suggested here. A total ban does not seem to make much sense in the context of the importance of the tea trade with northern lands, and as yet I have been unable to find corroboration of such a ban. It is not mentioned in The Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I. There might also have been some logic in placing a ban on domestic production, with the tea bricks reserved for the barter trade.

6. See next footnote

7. The Hongwu Emperor's demand for loose leaf tea
A ban by Hongwu on bricks for tribute tea (貢茶 gongcha), which was supposed to be sent directly to the emperor himself, is mentioned in the Hall of Tea History page on the website of the China National Tea Museum, as follows:

On the sixteenth day of ninth month in Ming's Hongwu twenty-fourth year ( A. D. 1391), Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang issued an imperial edict that loose leaf tribute tea should be paid instead of the conventional ball tea. It was highly praised by people of the later ages that the Imperial Court fully considered the laboring people and stopped ball tea production, only tender tea buds were picked for paying tribute because the real tea flavor was lost when tea was ground with spice and compressed into small cakes.

The date for the total ban, when given (compare above), is also generally stated as 1391; this suggests that someone misinterpreted the tribute tea ban to mean a total ban. However, I have not yet seen reliable historical accounts that could confirm this.

8. Zhu Quan's advocacy of loose leaf tea (散茶 san cha)
It is not yet clear to me whether he specifically pointed out the advantages of loose leaf tea, or simply wrote about it.

9. China National Tea Museum
As above, this quote comes from the Hall of Tea History page on the website of the China National Tea Museum. Regarding such museums, see further.

10. Kujiejun (苦節君 kujie jun; compare cha zao) ku jie jun      
Many websites refer to Zhu Quan and his "koojiejun", all apparently copying each other. In fact, although an illustration and description of a "kujiejun" can be found in the 茶譜 Cha Pu (1541) of 顧元慶 Gu Yuanqing (1487-1565), as depicted at right (enlarge), that book has no mention of Zhu Quan, nor is there any mention of a kujiejun in Zhu Quan's Tea Manual text. However, the kujiejun is quite possibly the same as (or a variant of) the 茶竈 "cha zao listed as one of Zhu Quan's tea implements. The word 竈 zao originally refers to a traditional stove: a large brick frame with holes for putting in wood fuel on the bottom of one side. This cha zao, however, is a sort of stove cover Zhu says did not exist before. He describes it as a frame into which the actual stove can be put when cooking the tea. The frame he describes here seems to be made of pottery, but later descriptions seem to show a bamboo box in which the stove can be put, with the outer frame making it easier to move the hot stove around; this was important when making tea, as he says, in the "forest" (i.e., garden or countryside).

31498.188 苦節 kujie traces it to the Yi Jing where, as "bitter restriction", it refers to being steadfast under misfortune. According to Dr. Tong Kin-Woon the inside of this frame will turn dark from absorbing the heat from the stove, but it continues to do the task it is intended to do, so it is indeed a "suffering (ku) yet still upright (jie) gentleman (jun)".

11. Sources for Zhu Quan's text
It was common in old writings to mix copies of old text with new, original text, even when some of the earlier text may have been out of date. Some of Zhu Quan's entries seem take their content from the Tea Record (茶錄 Cha Lu; Wiki) of 蔡襄 Cai Xiang (32581.225 蔡襄, style name 君謨 Junmo, ca. 1050 CE), and it is not always clear the significance of similarities and differences such as those with, e.g, cha nian.

12. Circulation of the original edition
According to commentary with modern editions, this volume did not achieve wide circulation. Although it may at one time have been printed, it was not mentioned in contemporary compendia. In particular, the 17th century 續茶經 Sequel to the Tea Classic, although it does quote Zhu Quan regarding cha zao, its 茶之略 Outline of (books on) Tea does not include Zhu Quan's Cha Pu.

13. Surviving Edition
All modern editions seem to be based on a hand copied one in the Nanjing Library (南京圖書館收藏的清杭大宗《藝海彙函》藍閣抄本一種): see comment in the appendix. It is not clear from edition what this surviving version was actually copied.

14. Shanghai edition
朱權,茶譜,上海古籍出版社,1997. I do not know if this book has any illustrations. The text, without illustrations, is included in several collections. This is discussed further below.

15. Text of Cha Pu
See appendix.

16. Historically informed re-creation of early teas?
As yet I have not heard of much interest in this. People seem simply to accept that the tea praised by Tang and Song literati could not possibly appeal to modern tastes. This may be true, or it may be that no one has yet figured out how to re-create those tastes.

17. Table of Contents of Cha Pu
As of May 2010 English pages online generally did not have a complete table of contents, as above, instead giving an outline of the contents, as follows:
    On Property of Tea
    Flower Tea
    Ten teawares
    Ranking of water
Compare my outline.

Original text of 朱權茶譜 Zhu Quan's Cha Pu
With partial and tentative translations

The original Chinese has been copied, with some editing, from www.hudong.com/wiki/茶谱 and zh.wikisource.org/zh/茶譜. The former has simplified characters and breaks the text into sections, with a few modern photograph illustrations, and it has a few differences with the sample page (above). The latter uses standard characters with the text run on and no illustrations; it seems to have been copied from the former (same differences with the sample page). Both break up characters they cannot write into two parts, with the latter sometimes losing the sense of the broken up characters. Regarding measurements, one 尺 chi ("foot") consists of 10 寸 cun ("inches"). Comments below are part of my effort to understand various passages.

The text on these websites is basically the same as on the hard copy editions I have seen, which also omit pictures. Two notable hard copy editions are in 中國古代茶葉全書 (浙江攝影出版社 1999) and 中國歷代茶書彙編校注本 (香港,商務印書館 2007). Both say the original Zhu Quan volume was not widely circulated, and they copied their text from 南京圖書館收藏的清杭大宗《藝海彙函》藍閣抄本一種, using a volume in《中國茶葉歷史資料選集》to correct errors.


(next page)

Xu: Preface
"Outstanding yet elegant, dense yet flourishing, thick yet orderly: such is the tea of northern gardens.
  Crisp and clear, tinkling in its sound, trickling as it flows: such is the water of southern torrents.
  Solitary as they stand, soft and warm, loud and clear as they ring: such are the stones of eastern mountains.
  Whether (the drinker is) worn out and distressed, steadfast and overbearing, or expansive and out of control, (tea) drains this out.
Using the stones of eastern mountains to strike a scorching hot fire, use the water of southern torrents to boil the tea of northern gardens...."
(translation incomplete.)


(next page)
盧仝吃七碗、老蘇不禁三碗,予以一甌, 足可通仙靈矣。

Cha Pu: Tea Manual (Opening essay, page 1) (original is above)
"Tea is something that can be useful to help poetry flourish so that clouds and mountains manifest their colors, can be useful to put off nightmares and thus forget about phyical existence in the natural world, (and) can be used to accompany philosophical conversations when everything is startled by cold weather. The usefulness of tea is great! There are five names for tea...."
(translation incomplete)
(十六章 Shiliu Zhang: 16 Sections)


([1:] Pin cha: Selecting tea [leaves])
"Before mid-spring [usually end of April] pick a stem and a leaf and make them into powder, (but) don't let the oils form this into a brick. If this is now mixed with fragrances, it will lose its natural properties, taking away its true flavor. In general, if the flavor (aroma) is delectable and fragrant, with a lasting aftertaste, and able to put one in good spirits: this is what is best. Only the shixian (7/1003: a lichen that grows on rocks) tea of Mengshan in Shandong has a flavor approaching the celestial. Don't use ordinary plants; although society certainly cannot do without tea, if by nature the tea is bland, those without urgency will not easily drink it."
(Comment: compare partial


([2:] Shou cha: Storing tea)
"Tea should be stored in [containers made of] bamboo leaves. It prefers a warm and dry environment to one that is cold and damp. Warm it in an oven (bei 焙). The bei is made of wood. The tea is placed on top, and the fire (heat source) below. Cover it with bamboo leaves so that the heat is retained. The warming should be repeated once every three days preferably at human body temperature. This will help to preserve the tea and ward off dampness. The fire should not be too strong lest the tea is burnt. Those that are not regularly warmed in the oven should be stored in a bamboo leaf container placed high above the ground.

(Then) perhaps all year the flavor and taste become seasoned, and it is suitable to use bubbling hot water to steep it, allowing the flavor to become more wonderful. Whenever getting tianxiang tea, when the cassia flowers are in full bloom, the weather fine and clear. Even if you get it at midday, it does not take away the tea flavor. In addition, receiving it has a method, if you don't use the method then it is not suitable."
(Comment: translation of the first part is from
Needham, p.529 [its "pei" changed here to "bei"]; compare Explanation). My translation of the second part is very speculative. Regarding 天香茶 tianxiang cha, 5961.657 says 天香 means heavenly fragrance or a holiday like New Year. I am not sure if the text is referring to a specific type of tea, perhaps one with cassia mixed in.


([3:] Dian cha: Whisking tea)
"Whenever you want to whisk tea, first you must set out a kaozhan. If the cup is cold then the tea will sink; if there is not enough tea then the tea leaves will scatter. If there is excess water then like gruel they will form together. Using a bi (ladle/spoon) thrust into the cup, first pour in hot water and little by little stir it evenly, start rotating a bit more (faster?), circle back vigorously (?), the hot water can 70% fill the cup (?). When the cup has no water there will be beautiful trace marks (in it). Nowadays people use fruit products as a substitute for tea, most valuing the flowers of plum, cassia and jasmine. One can take several flower buds, toss them into the cup and cover it. Steep it a bit, and the buds will open up. When the cup has not quite reached the lips, the aroma fills the nose."
(Comment: kaozhan 烤盞 7/58xxx: heating cup? Tea leaves: 雲腳 11/648: 茶的別稱.)


([4:] Xunxiang cha fa: Method of scenting tea)
"Any kind of (scented) flowers may be used. When the flower blooms seal a two-level bamboo basket with paper. Place the tea leaves in the upper level and the flowers in the lower level. The seal must be air-tight. After one night replace the old flowers with fresh blooms. After a few days, the tea will be saturated with the fragrance of the flowers. The same method may be used to scent the tea with borneo camphor."
(Comment: translation is from
Needham, p.553.)
(器具 Qiju: Implements)


([5:] Cha lu: Tea brazier)
"It is made like a (3-legged?) cauldron for alchemical potions. In all it is 7 cun high, its diameter is 4 cun, its legs are 3 cun high, and the air vent is one cun high...."
(translation incomplete)
(Comment: 31686.221 茶爐 says 煮茶之爐: a brazier for cooking/boiling tea; earliest reference is to a poem by
Liu Yuxi. 神鼎 7/877 練丹葯的鼎器 alchemical cauldron/tripod; 瀉銀坩鍋瓷 xie yin gan guo ci? 18964.xxx, 41252.xxx, 5093.xxx, but 坩堝 crucible.)

每令炊竈以 供茶,其清致倍宜。

([6:] Cha zao: Tea stove; also written "茶灶")
"Of old there was nothing like this. I can set it up when in a forest, it is a (or: with a?) pottery implement for heating (the tea), similar to a stove (oven?). The upper level, five chi high, is the oven platform; the lower level, nine cun high, five chi long and one chi wide; along its side are cut words of poetry that praise tea...."
(translation incomplete)
(Comment: 31686.223 茶竈 says it is a 烹茶之竈 stove for boiling tea; earliest reference is the 唐書 Tang Shu biography of
Lu Guimeng. However, the chazao described here seems to be a more complex portable device for making tea outdoors in a neat manner. A chaozao is mentioned in lyrics perhaps written by a grandson of Zhu Quan: could this be what is later called a "kujiejun"?

In the 17th century 續茶經 Sequel to the Tea Classic Zhu Quan was quoted as follows:
The Emaciated Immortal says, There was a tea stove of the olden days, but today we only hear the name, no one has yet seen the actual object; I think it must not provide such a clean environment as the present one. I have made a earthenware vessel from kaolin powder rather than using clay; it is more fire resistant, so that even if the flames are fierce it won't crack. Its diameter is no more than 5 chi, its height not much more than 2 chi; above and below are engraved inscriptions, odes and admonishments exhorting one. Also, one puts a hot water pot on top, whereas the base is empty. Below there is a cavernous space ["sun valley cave"] that can be used to store ladles and cups; all in all] providing a] clean environment.
The source of this text is not stated: an alternate version of Zhu Quan's Cha Pu? Or is it from a completely different essay concerning tea?)


([7:] Cha mo: Tea mill)
"The mill is made from qingmeng stone, the reason being to obtain (the teas ability to) 化痰祛熱 reduce phlegm and expel heat. Other types of stone do not (bring these) beneficial properties to tea."
(Comment: 31686.197 茶磨 says 用以磨茶之臼 a mortar/bowl for grinding tea, giving
明一統志 as its earliest reference. Most sites begin this description: 磨以青礞口為之。取其化談去故也.... 43517.822 青礞石: a kind of mica.)


([8:] Cha nian: Tea roller)
"Tea rollers, in the olden days, were made of gold, silver, copper or iron; (but tea can cause) all these to corrode. Now it is best to use
qingmeng stone."
(Comment: 31686.191 says 碾茶之器 an implement for grinding tea, then quotes the Tea Record [茶錄 Cha Lu, presumably of Cai Xiang], saying "茶碾以銀或鐵為之,黃金性柔,銅及䃋石皆能生鉎,不入用". 11/1232 鉎 says it means 銹 rust, but gold, silver or copper will rust only if they have impurities; otherwise, gold will flake, silver will tarnish and copper will oxidize.)


([9:] Cha luo: Tea sieve)
"Tea sieves are 5 cun in diameter and made of gauze. If fine, then the tea (flavor) will rise to the top; if coarse, then the water (flavor) will rise to the top."
(Comment: 31686.220 茶羅 chaluo: 飾茶之用具 an implement for covering/decorating tea. The example it gives is said to be from the "Tea Record", but the description is different from what is here; the description here is in fact quite similar to the one given in the Tea Record of 蔡襄 Cai Xiang (see
above). The aim in making tea is to get rid of its coarseness while retaining its essence, hence the present interpretation of "fu", normally translated as "float", dominate, etc.)


([10:] Cha jia: Tea stand)
"For the tea stand today people mostly use wood, carving and engraving it with literary embellishments, tending towards opulence. I make mine using mottled bamboo or black bamboo, the most pure and simple."
(Comment: 31686.xxx. This might actually be a sort of tea tray.)


([11:] Cha chi: Tea spoon)
"With teaspoons you must be vigorous so that your stirring has strength. The ancients thought it best if they were made of gold, while today people make them from silver or copper. Bamboo ones are light. I formerly used coconut husk to make them; these were most excellent. (But) later I found a blind person, eyeless, who was good at making spoons from bamboo, hundreds altogether, all the same size, marvelous for use. Having especially learned to use its individual characteristics no matter what spoon, I did not place special value even on ones made of gold."
(Comment: 31686.126 茶匙 says a chachi 飲茶用之匙 is a spoon used when drinking tea, quoting Tea Record (see
above) as saying pretty much the same as what is here.)


([12:] Cha xian: Tea whisk)
"Tea whisks are made of bamboo chunks; it is best when they are made broad and simple; they are about 5 cun long. Spoon tea into the cup, pour in hot water and whisk it. Wait for froth to float like cloud heads with rain drops, then stop."
(Comment: 31686.147 茶筅 chaxian says it is 調茶之具 an implement for stirring tea; earliest source given is the 大觀茶論
Daguan Chalun of Song Huizong. An internet search for images shows almost exclusively the Japanese 茶筅 chasen used for their 抹茶 matcha tea. Matcha tea has its source in China during the Song dynasty, and from the description here this could be such a whisk, though there is no mention of slicing one end of the bamboo to form the bristles. However, a number of commentaries state that by the end of the Ming dynasty people in China had no idea what a tea whisk looked like.)


([13:] Cha ou: Tea cups)
"For teacups, the ancients generally used those from Jian'an, choosing their pine grain (like) rabbit hair as marvelous. Now those of ganyao (?) are considered to be the same as those of jianzhan (?), but when pouring tea the color is not clear and for best quality it would be better to use raoci (rao ware), so that when pouring tea it is clear and lovely."
(Comment: 31686.200 defines 茶甌 as 烹茶之小釜 a small cauldron for boiling tea, giving 李華雲母泉詩 a poem by the Tang poet Li Hua as its earliest reference. Teacups are usually 茶杯 chabei (also meaning "tea glass"). As for Jian'an, it is most likely the one that is now 福建省建甌縣 Jianou county in north central Fujian province. 淦窯 18134.xxx. 淦 gan is 泥 mud [also a stream in Jiangxi province]; 窯 yao is kiln. 建盞 9786.xxx [jianzhan; zhan is a kind of cup or pan; compare .121 建窯 jianyao, a type of pottery]. 饒瓷 45361.xxx [饒 rao: a district near Jingdezhen; 瓷 ci: porcelain].)


([14:] Cha ping: Tea pitcher)
The pitcher should be small so that it is easy to wait for the water to become hot, and when whisking the tea the hot water will be just right. Of old people mostly used iron and called in a "ying" (jar). As for the ying, people of the Song dynasty, hating that it corroded, used gold for the best ones and silver after that. Now I use "cishi" (china stone, feldspathic stone) to make them. In all it is five cun high, at the waist three cun high, at the nape of the neck two cun long, its beak 7 cun long. When waiting for (?) the hot water one cannot be excessive (?); when (the tea is) not yet fully cooked the froth floats, (but) when done too much the then tea sinks.
(Comment: 31686.153 says 茶瓶 chaping is 盛茶之瓶也 a pitcher for holding tea, giving as its earliest reference 品茶要錄 Pincha Yaolu by 黃儒 Huang Ru, ca. 1075. [22017 瓶 doesn't mention tea; 31686.137 茶壺 chahu is the common expression for teapot.])
(Closing Sections)


([15:] Jian tang fa: Water heating method)
Ones that use charcoal with a flame have what are called blazing fires. One must cause the water to heat up without excessive bubbling. At first it should be like fish eyes spread out, then like a spring bubbling up in connected pearls, finally the prancing ripples beat in waves, and water vapor is dispelled. This method of three boilings: unless you have a blazing fire you cannot achieve it.


([16:] Pin shui: Classifying water)
The Emaciated Immortal says,....
(Not yet translated)
(Comment: This section has three lists. The first names 4 water sources, the second describes 3 types, the third names 20. The second ranks the water types; it is not clear if the others are also rankings or simply lists.)
Translator's final comment:
All this would be much more helpful if a facsimile edition with illustrations were available.

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