Xu Qi
 T of C 
Home
My
Work
Hand-
books
Qin as
Object
Qin in
Art
Poetry
/ Song
Hear,
Watch
Play
Qin
Analysis History Ideo-
logy
Miscel-
lanea
More
Info
Personal email me search me
琴史續 Qin Shi Xu   五知齋琴譜 Wuzhizhai Qinpu 目錄 ToC 首頁
Xu Qi
- Qin Shi Xu #194 2
徐祺 1
琴史續 #194

Originally from 揚州 Yangzhou, Xu Qi spent many years compiling the tablature that was eventually published in 1722 as the 五知齋琴譜 Wuzhizhai Qinpu (1722; XIV.4) 3 However, he himself died in the 1670s and it took over 50 years for his son (徐俊 Xu Jun) to find someone (周魯封 Zhou Lufeng) to help him publish his father's work. It thus seems quite likely that a significant amount of collecting work done by Xu Qi himself was done at the end of the Ming and beginning of the Qing dynasties. In addition, Xu Qi (and/or his editors) seems to have done a significant amount of comparing and studying these collected melodies. This could give Wuzhizhai Qinpu a particular significance in the study of Ming dynasty qin melodies.

Qinshi Chubian (QSCB), Qing dynasty Qin specialists (p.155), says Xu Qi studied melodies from all over but emphasized the Shu School (熟派 Shupai, from 常熟 Changshu). This school is generally connected to the Yushan School (neither is in this chart, but see discussion).

QSCB wrote of Xu Qi:4

Xu Qi, courtesy name Dasheng, self-styled Old man of Gulang, was a famous qin master of Yangzhou. He "devoted himself to qin studies, thus achieving profound insights;" (and) "whenever it came to correct qin he made it his duty". He took opportunities to travel to (places in) Yan (around Hebei province), Qi (in Shandong), Zhao (around Hebei/Shanxi), Wei (around Shanxi/Shaanxi), Wu (around Jiangsu and inland Zhejiang), Chu (Hubei/Hunan region) and Ouyue (coastal Zhejiang) where he could visit gentlemen knowledgeable of music, "fame spread from the capital, and was considered best under the enlightened rule." (?) Xu Qi's wide-ranging research into the tablature of all styles of (qin music) went on for over 30 years, and this was edited into the Qin Handbook of the Five Knowings (Five Ways of Knowing?). Among the 33 collected melodies "Shu style" ([for its origins in Changshu but better known as] Yushan Style) is most important, but it also includes (melodies in) Jingling style, Wu style and Shu (Sichuan) style. Along with the tablature (for each piece) in addition to an introduction and an afterword, there are interlineal annotations. These written comments relate his understanding and analysis of (each) melody, and in detail clearly point out their sources and the places where he made additions. Because all of this work resulted in quite a few additions to our knowledge, and the tablature he wrote is very precise and meticulous, qin players have welcomed it enthusiastically.

Qinshi Chubian then goes on to talk about Wuzhizhai Qinpu (see translation).

The Qin Shi Xu entry also has information about:

  1. 徐俊 Xu Jun
    - 徐俊字越千 Style name Yueqian, he was the son of Xu Qi who apparently inherited his father's collection qin tablature and other materials, then some years later was able to get them published.

  2. 周魯封 Zhou Lufeng
    - 周魯封字子安 Style name Zi'an, from 燕山 Yanshan, he worked with Xu Jun to publish Xu Qi's tablature collection. One version is apparently the 琴譜大成 Qinpu Dacheng preserved in Japan; its cover says it was 燕山周子安彙輯 compiled by Zhou Zi'an of Yanshan and published in 乾隆丙寅新鐫 (1746), where it was said to be from the 懷德堂藏板 Huaide Tang Collection
    . However, there is apparently some suggestion that the original of this dates back to 1662.

  3. 黃鎮 Huang Zhen
    - After studying qin in Jinling (Nanjing) as a youth he returned to Yangzhou (?) and worked with Xu Jun and Zhou Lufeng to publish Xu Qi's handbook.

  4. 汪安候 Wang Anhou
    - When young Huang Zhen studied qin with Wang Anhou in Jinling

  5. 羅子敬 Luo Zijing
    - When young Huang Zhen also studied with Luo Zijing in Jinling

Further information under 五知齋琴譜 Wuzhizhai Qinpu.

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Xu Qi 徐祺
The original QSX text is as follows,
徐祺,字大生,號古琅老人,揚州人,篤志琴學,遂臻妙悟。嘗以正琴學爲己任。歷遊燕、趙、呉、楚,訪知音之士。積三十餘年成書,未刊。其子俊字越千,能世其學與燕山。周子安魯封善取父書而增訂之成五知齋琴譜八卷。有黃鎮者字仲安,幼即好琴,常遊金陵就學於汪安侯、羅子敬之門。晚年歸皖與魯封及俊交共考師夔遺韻,五知齋琴譜既成。鎮為之序。 (蓴湖漫錄
(Return)

2.
No image yet.
(Return)

3. Wuzhizhai Qinpu (1722; XIV.4)
Concerning the title, 262.499 五知 wu zhi says:

According to 宋任布 the Song dynasty's Ren Bu the "five knowings" are
  1. 知恩 zhi en (knowing kindness/favor),
  2. 知道 zhi dao (knowing the Way),
  3. 知命 zhi ming (knowing fate),
  4. 知足 zhi zu (knowing what is sufficient), and
  5. 知幸 zhi xing (knowing good fortune).

Ren Bu had a study room called 五知堂 Hall of the Five Knowings.

On the otherhand, according to 宋李繹 the Song dynasty's Li Yi (nickname 五知先生 Mr. Five Knowings) the five are

  1. 知時 zhi shi (knowing the appropriate time),
  2. 知難 zhi nan (knowing difficulty),
  3. 知命 zhi ming (knowing fate),
  4. 知退 zhi tui (knowing when to back off), and
  5. 知足 zhi zu (knowing what is sufficient ).

However, it is not yet clear whether or how this connects to Xu Qi.

There is a list of melodies in this handbook here.
(Return)

4. 徐祺 in 琴史初編
Translated above because the 琴史續 Qin Shi Xu bio has not yet been translated. Translation is tentative.

The original text from Qin Shi Chu Bian is as follows (second part translated here):

徐祺字大生,號古琅老人,也是揚州著名琴家。他「篤志琴學,遂臻妙悟」、毎「以正琴爲己任。」曾遍訪燕、齊、趙、魏、呉、楚、甌越知音之士,「名震都下,爲昭代之首推。」徐祺廣泛研究各家各派的傳譜,積三十餘年,編成《五知齋琴譜》。所收三十三曲中以熟派(即虞山派)爲主,兼收金陵、呉、蜀各派。曲譜中除解題、後記之外,還有許多旁注。這些文字記敍了對樂曲的理解和分析,井精細地注明出處及自己所加工之處。由於加工發展得比較成功,記譜又精密細緻,深受琴家的歡迎。

《五知齋琴譜》編成之後,很久未能出版。過了五十四年之後,他的兒子徐俊在安徴遇到了知音者周魯封,在周的幫助下,才於康熙六十一年(公元1722)首次刊印。徐俊字越千,周魯封字子安,他兩人的關係被譽爲當代的伯牙和子期。「越千有譜,子安能考訂而玉成;子安善琴,越千能推敲而屬和。」周魯封參予了《五知齋琴譜》的編輯修訂工作。他主張「一操必有一操之命意,即文不能入調以合奏,亦當存文而備覽,庶不負古人制曲之心。」有些樂曲經過發展,原有歌詞已經不再能配上曲調,就把歌詞附在樂譜的前或後,如《胡笳十八拍》就是採用了蜀譜、呉詞,詞譜分記的方法。

10363.xxx 徐祺
3308.xxx 古琅 gu lang: old lang stone; often signifies "a gemstone from distant lands or supernal regions, appropriate to decorate persons of special beauty or power, to nourish transcendent beings, to grow as trees in paradise realms..... onom. of tinkle or clink of pendants...." (Kroll)
(
Return)

There previously were further details here about Wuzhizhai Qinpu; these have now been moved and updated here

Return to the top, to QSCB, or to the Guqin ToC.