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SFGQP ToC   Qin Ci     Qin songs   /  1511 version listen 聽 網站目錄
Wind Through the Pines
- Shang mode (1 2 4 5 6 1 2) then yu mode (5 6 1 2 3 5 6)2
 
風入松 1
Feng Ru Song
Wind in the Pines, by Ma Lin 3          
The history of the melody "Wind through the Pines" (or "Wind in the Pines") is discussed with its earlier publication as a qin melody, in Taigu Yiyin (1511); that page also includes a tracing chart for differing versions of the melody having this title.

As mentioned with the earlier setting, "wind in the pines" is a phrase often found in Chinese poetry. Pines are tall and upright, and the sound of wind in the pines is beautiful. Numerous poems use the phrase "wind in the pines" to suggest this theme.4 And it is perhaps for this reason that the melody of this name is often connected with Xi Kang (223-262). Xi Kang was an upright person who refused to be corrupted by the ill winds of his day. He was a famous musician, but his connection with any melody called Wind in the Pines is probably more symbolic than historical.

The present page, however, concerns only the cipai called Wind in the Pines. There will be mention of other examples of lyrics in this form,5 but the focus is on the two settings in Song Sheng Cao, a collection of ci settings for guqin apparently published as part of the handbook Songfengge Qinpu.

These ci settings do not in fact make any mention of Xi Kang. Instead they only name the cipai, the mode of the music, the name (and perhaps location) of the person who wrote the lyrics, and the name of the person who set the lyrics for qin - 程雄 Cheng Xiong. It is not clear whether Cheng created the music from scratch or whether he was here adapting existing melodies.

 
Original preface(s)
None

 
Music and Lyrics: Two settings6
Both settings are largely syllabic, following the 76-character form of the ci structure ([7+5. 7+7. 6+6. 7+5.] x 2). This structure is a double one (雙調 shuang diao), with each half here having the same pattern.

  1. The first melody, in 商音 shang mode, has 詞 lyrics by 盧士登時渭 Deng Shiwei (XII/401)
  2. The second melody, in 羽音 yu mode, has 詞 lyrics by 徐亭有齋 Xu Ting (You Zhai?) (XII/402)

The lyrics are as follows:

  1. 梯雲小閣繞長松,         翠靄響天風。
    Tī yún xiǎo gé rào zhǎng sōng, cuì ǎi xiǎng tiān fēng.

    麟香細裊金猊篆,         三聲聚   妙理絲桐。
    Lín xiāng xì niǎo jīn ní zhuàn, sān shēng jù miào lǐ sī tóng.

    志在髙山流水,         人來閬苑瓊宮。
    Zhì zài gāo shān liú shuǐ, rén lái làng yuàn qióng gōng.

    少君共輓鹿車從,         星降恰相逢。                         (共輓鹿車 = 共挽鹿車)
    Shǎo jūn gòng wǎn lù chē cóng, xīng jiàng qià xiāng féng.

    鵲橋銀漢傳靑鳥,         氷弦譜   鸞鳳和雝。
    Què Qiáo Yín Hàn chuán qīng niǎo, bīng xián pǔ luán fèng hé yōng.

    白岳峯前石室,         新安江上壺公。
    Bái yuè fēng qián shí shì, xīn ān jiāng shàng hú gōng.
     

  2. 雲居南角枕淸波,         補屋好牽蘿。
    Yún jū nán jiǎo zhěn qīng bō, bǔ wū hǎo qiān luó.

    松風小閣堪偕隱,         儘娛人   山水髙歌。
    Sōng fēng xiǎo gé kān xié yǐn, jǐn yú rén shān shuǐ gāo gē.

    琴薦雙攜綠逕,         鏡奩斜對靑螺,
    Qín jiàn shuāng xié lǜ jìng, jìng lián xié duì qīng luó,

    葛洪仙偶未應過。         梅鶴勝林逋,
    gé hóng xian ǒu wèi yīng guò. Méi hè shèng lín bū,

    朅來怪爾囊書劍,         染紅垓   客鬢疎疎。
    qiè lái guài ěr nāng shū jiàn, rǎn hóng gāi kè bìn shū shū.

    急買湖田歸去,         休拋兩笠煙簑。
    Jí mǎi hú tián guī qù, xiū pāo liǎng lì yān suō.

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a
separate page)

1. Song of Wind in the Pines (風入松歌 Feng Ru Song Ge)
For "pine" by itself, 14897 松 gives as one reference 詩,小雅,斯干 Book of Songs #189 The Beck (mountain stream; see Waley). For the Book of Songs illustration above see below.

For Feng Ru Song 44734.7 風入松 says it is a Yuefu melody by Xi Kang. It is also the name of a a 曲牌 qupai and a 詞牌 cipai, as follows:

There are many English language references to the song "Wind in the Pines". One reason for this is discussed in the next footnote. The phrase is also used outside the context of this song, as in the line "autumn wind through the pines" from Li Bai's poem "In Praise of Qin".

Meanwhile, the expression 松濤 songtao (literally "billowing pines") has a similar meaning to "wind in the pines". Both have been used as metaphors for nature's music. For an example of songtao used in a qin song see Myriad Gullies and Billowing Pines: 萬壑松濤 Wanhuo Songtao.

Myriad Gullies and Billowing Pines (萬壑松濤 Wanhuo Songtao)
This qin melody, which has no musical connection to the Song of Wind in the Pines (above), survives in handbooks dated 1670, 1739, and 1876; it is of uncertain origin ("written by a 賢 sage"). 25455.628 has only 萬壑 but it connects this with trees in a poem by 杜甫 Du Fu that refers to 萬壑樹聲 myriad gullies and the sound of trees. For 松濤 songtao 14898.257 gives as its earliest reference the poem 慢題詩 by 歐陽原功 Ouyang Yuangong (歐陽玄 Ouyang Xuan 1283-1357).
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2. Tuning and mode
Comment to be added once the melodies have been reconstructed.
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3. Wind in the Pines, by 馬麟 Ma Lin
Ma Lin (ca. 1180 – after 1256; Wikipedia). Full title of painting: 靜聽松風圖 Quietly Listening to Soughing Pines. The original is in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan. Copied from commons.wikimedia.org.
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4. Significance of poems Wind in the Pines
A good discussion of the significance of Wind in the Pines is in Alfreda Murck, The Subtle Art of Dissent, pp. 163-177. After discussing a poem by Du Fu, the qin melody called Feng Ru Song, and (p. 165) Han Yu's Preface to Seeing off Meng Jiao, it focuses on a poem called Wind in the Pines Hall (松風閣 Song Feng Ge; see p.168) by 黃庭堅 Huang Tingjian, comparing it with Du Fu's poem 秋日夔府詠懷 Autumn Day in Kui Prefecture (p.279).
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5. Ci lyrics for Feng Ru Song
The cipai explanation for feng ru song at 44734.7 風入松 begins by saying that the 古樂府 old Music Bureau had a 風入松琴操調 Feng Ru Song qin melody with lyrics by 僧皎然 Jiao Ran, and that it was also called 風入松慢 Feng Ru Song Man ("man" meaning "slow"). This seems to suggest that later ci poems should use the structure of Jiao Ran's poem, which is basically (7+7) x 7. However, it quotes no examples.

In fact, the standard structure for ci poems of this name seems to be very different, said to have either 74 or 76 characters.

For the 74 character form the alignment seems to be:

7+4+7. 3+4+6. 6.
7+4+7. 3+4+6. 6. (i.e.,same word count but a different pingce pattern)

However, this also seems to have been interpreted as:

7+4. 7+(3+4). 6+6.
7+4. 7+(3+4). 6+6. (I am not sure of the significance of differing punctuations)

The 76 character pattern adds a character to the second phrase of each line. The alignment is:

7+5. 7+7. 6+6.
7+5. 7+7. 6+6.

Here is an example of the 76-character form, by 張炎 Zhang Yan (1248-1302):

門前山可久長看,留住白雲難。
溪虛卻與雲相傍,對白雲,何必深山。
爽氣潛生樹石,晴光竟入欄乾。

舊家三徑竹千竿,蒼雪拂衣寒。
綠蓑青笠玄真子,釣風波,不是真閒。
得似壺中日月,依然只在人間。

Compare this 74-character version, by 趙彥端 Zhao Yanduan (Song dynasty):

傳聞天上有星榆,歷歷誰居。
淡煙暮擁紅雲暖,春寒乍有還無。
作態似深仍淺,多情要密還疏。

移尊環坐足相娛,醉影憑扶。
江南歸到雖憐晚,猶勝不見踟躇。
盡拌綠陰青子,憑肩攜手如初。

There are still other variants on this form. For example, the following Feng Ru Song, by the poet 劉基 Liu Ji (1311-1375), has only 72 characters, as follows:

一天煙靄醖愁陰,庭宇沈沈。
畫梁燕子來何晚,薄寒猶戀羅衾。
但道青春未謝,不知芳徑苔深。

少年歡笑夢中尋,落得傷心。
蒼梧鳳去幽篁死,斷弦空系瑤琴。
莫更登高望遠,杜鵑聲在雲林。

The qin repertoire includes at least two examples, both in the 76 character pattern, #27 and #30 in Song Sheng Cao (1687; these are the two pieces whose lyrics are set out above).
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6. Music and lyrics
Commentary to be added once the melodies have been reconstructed.
(Return)

 
Return to the annotated handbook list or to the Guqin ToC.