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31. Song of Yangguan
- tuning not given,2 but clearly ruibin (raised 5th strings): 2 3 5 6 1 2 3
The parting: see larger image 3
For more information on the various settings of this poem see the Chart tracing Yangguan Sandie, as well as the prefaces to Yangguan Sandie in Zheyin Shizi Qinpu (ca. 1491) and Faming Qinpu (1530). The poem was included in Yuefu Shiji, Folio 80.
Original 1511 preface 4
This translation is quite tentative:
(??? I am not yet clear on several points here. It seems as though the author is commenting on phrases popularly added to Wang Wei's lyrics, saying that these were used for making related ensemble melodies. However, existing qin versions also created expanded lyrics this way, though none of the existing versions repeats the third phrase three times or uses any of the other three examples. Nevertheless, if this interpretation is correct, then perhaps this suggests that the present 1511 version, and/or its preface, was/were made prior to the other qin versions: at first only the Wang Wei lyrics themselves were repeated, and only later was other text added. See further comment.)
1511 Music and lyrics
Thirteen sections (not numbered)
For each section the tablature gives a largely syllablic setting of Wang Wei's 4-line poem, 7 characters per line (Romanized).
|渭城朝雨挹輕塵。||The morning rain at Weicheng dampens the light dust,|
|客舍青青柳色新。||The inn is green with the color of new willows.|
|勸君更盡一杯酒。||Urgently the gentlemen offer up one more cup of wine.|
|西出陽關無故人。||Going west to Yangguan there will be no old acquaintances.|
Traditional qin tablature never gives a direct indication of rhythm. As with qin music in general my interpretation is that the basic melodies are not free rhythm; rather they rhythmic, but the rhythms are freely interpreted. Thus, I interpret each of the 13 repetitions of Wang Wei's 4-line poem as being accompanied by a melody of 4 measures of four bars each, all in 2/2 time. However, not only is this rhythm freely interpreted, phrases are often repeated, but there is no overall pattern to these repetitions.
To my mine this lack of an overall pattern reinforces my understanding that qin tablature was a description of how a melody from an oral tradition was played on one occasion; it was not a composition showing how it should always be played (except perhaps by a student).
The following structural outline shows the variations used here in the 1511 tablature for Yangguan Qu. To me these variations suggest that there was at the time a basic four bar melody for Wang Wei's poem, but with many variations (and quite likely no agreement that one version was the "true melody"). This melody was then, at times, sung over and and over, each time somewhat differently, either in the melody itself or in the way parts of the melody were repeated. Rather than seeing this as a song in 13 sections, one should see it as an example of how the melody was once done in 13 sections: on other occasions one might perform the same song in fewer or more sections, with other melodic variations of different phrasal repetitions. For repeated lyrics, perhaps a second singer could have done these as an echo.
As the outline shows, in the present version although each section has 4 phrases of 7 characters each, none is described as simply 7+7+7+7. The variants are:
This hopefully explains the following structural outline of the 1511 version, as indicated by the tablature:
2. (7+2) + (7+3) + 7 + (7+R)
3. (7+R) + (7+3) + 7 + (7+R)
4. (7+2) + 7 + 7 + (7+R)
5. (7+R) + 7 + (7+R) + (7+R); (the third phrase as written specifies playing the note sequence 6 7 1 1 2 2 2; this is odd enough that, assuming it is correct, my inclination sometimes is to emphasize it by repeating the whole line, not just the last three notes)
6. 7 + 7 + 7 + (7+7); (the last phrase was written out again, with new music)
7. 7 + 7 + 7 + (7+R); (the last phrase has three 搯撮 taocuo, here interpreted as 搯撮三聲 taocuo sansheng)
8. 7 + (7+R) + 7 + (7+R)
9. (7+R) + 7 + 7 + (7+R)
10. 7 + 7 + 7 + (7+R)
11. (7+2) + (7+3) + 7 + (7+R)
12. 7 + 7 + (7+R) + (7+R); (the third phrase is the same as in Section 5: 6 7 1 1 2 2 2)
13. (7+R) + 7 + 7 + 7 (harmonics)
My personal inclination when playing this is, when there is a repeat during the first two or three lines of a 4-line stanza, to follow the example of written out repeats (7+2 and 7+3) and so repeat only the last two or three characters of that line (note the exception in Section 5), but when there is a repeat at the end of the last line of a section to follow the example of Section 6 and repeat all seven characters (7+7). In both cases I usually change the rhythm somewhat during the repeat.
To emphasize it once again, there is nothing in qin literature that discusses how to deal with these repetitions, and it is quite possible either that something different was intended, or that these specifics didn't really matter: qin tablature is not a written out composition, as in Western music of the Common Practice Period ("classical music"); instead it is a transcription of how someone played a melody. That person might in fact not have played the melody the same way each time. In theory one should sing during all the repeats but my inclination is not to do so (there was even at that time criticism of the idea that all qin songs had to be sung all the way through). As suggested by the comment with the 1511 preface, the Wang Wei lyrics came to be expanded in many different ways.
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Yangguan Qu 陽關曲
See Yangguan Sandie
Tuning and mode
Taigu Yiyin does not group pieces by tuning or mode. Some other early Yang Guan melodies used qiliang tuning (raised 2nd and 5th strings): 2 4 5 6 1 2 3 . However, the fact that the second string position is consistently played here at the 10th instead of the 11th hui clearly shows that ruibin is intended here.
Used with Yangguan Sandie
4. Original preface
A Romanized version of the original Wang Wei lyrics is as follows.
The last line is usually translated "Going west through Yang Guan". I have translated it "to Yang Guan" because the full title of the poem, 渭城曲：送元二出便安西 Weicheng Tune: Seeing Yuan Er off to Anxi, mentions a place (Anxi) on the way to Yangguan, and this is picked up in expanded forms of the poem used with other qin settings of the poem, e.g., in
ca. 1491 and
1530, where the lyrics concern going to Yang Guan, not going west through it.
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