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19. Pheasants' Morning Flight
- Standard tuning:2 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2
 
雉朝飛 1
Zhi Zhao Fei
A male pheasant about to fly3        
The lyrics for the melody here are Zhi Zhao Fei Cao by Han Yu (768-824) in the voice of Du Muzi. Like the poem, the music has just 11 phrases. It seems musically unrelated to Zhi Zhao Fei in Shen Qi Mi Pu, though the accompanying explanation shows that the story is the same.

The original text in Yuefu Shiji, Folio 57, #23,4 begins by saying Zhi Zhao Fei Cao is also called Zhi Zhao Gou Cao.5 It then has introductions to the melody from four sources, as follows:

Yang Xiong, Qin Qing Ying

Relates the story of the governess of a woman of Wei. On her way to marry a prince of Qi, the woman of Wei learned that he had died. She committed suicide "to protect her virginity" and changed into a pheasant. This saddened her governess, who then wrote Zhi Zhao Fei.

Cui Bao, Notes Old and New

Tells the Du Muzi story, adding that in the time of Cao Cao (ca. 200 CE) a woman in the palace named Ms. Lu, who was good at new sounds, was able to play this piece; she apparently also married late.

Bo Ya, untitled Qin Song

麥秀蔪兮雉朝飛,向虛壑兮背喬槐,依絕區兮臨回池。

Yuefu Jieti

Concerns emperor Jianwen of Liang. He is connected to the aforementioned story of Ms. Lu.

In YFSJ these four commentaries are followed by seven lyrical settings:

  1. Du Muzi

    The 1425 preface copies the original lyrics.

  2. Bao Zhao

  3. Emperor Jianwen of Liang

  4. Wu Jun

  5. Li Bai

    His lyrics connect the story to spring time. This is perhaps one reason that the prelude to Zhi Zhao Fei in Xilutang Qintong is Chunxiao Yin.

  6. Han Yu (768-824)

    These are the lyrics used in Taigu Yiyin (see below)

  7. Zhang Hu

A later example of a Zhi Zhao Fei poem is the one by the Song dynasty's Cao Xun in his own collection called Qin Cao. 6

 
Original Taigu Yiyin preface 7

According to tradition this lament came about because Du Muzi at the age of 70 having no wife saw a pair of pheasants flying and was moved to create it. How could it be that while seeing the pheasants there came about this song? More likely some later person inspired by this created the melody.

 
Music and lyrics: One section 8
A largely syllabic setting, following the structure of the Han Yu lyrics:
([6] + [{4+4} x 3] + [4+6] + [5+5])

雉之飛於朝日。
Zhi zhi fei yu zhao ri.
The pheasants' flight occurs in the morning.

群雌孤雄,        意氣橫出。
Qun ci gu xiong,   yi qi heng chu.
With many females and just one male, their spirit takes them flying straight out.

當東而西,        當啄而飛。
Dang dong er xi,   dang zhuo er fei.
They may go east or west; then they may preen or fly.

隨飛隨啄,        群雌粥粥。
Sui fei sui zhuo,   qun ci zhou zhou.
Whether flying or preening, the females of the flock sound out "zhou zhou".

嗟我雖人,        曾不如彼雉雞。
Jie wo sui ren,   zeng bu ru bi zhi ji.
Alas, although I am human, so far I am not as well off as those birds.

生身七十年,        無一妾與妃。
Sheng shen qi shi nian,   wu yi qie yu fei.
This body is now 70 years old, but I have no wife or concubine.

 
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)

1. Zhi Zhao Fei 雉朝飛
42936.20 雉朝飛 (see also 14705.127 朝飛操, which quotes Cui Bao) says "qin melody" and quotes Yuefu Shiji (see p.837), including some of the poems. The monk Ju Yue (Seng Juyue) lists it as "most ancient". See also Xu Jian, pp. 8-9.
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2. Tuning and Mode
Taigu Yiyin does not group pieces by tuning or mode; if it did this particular melody might best fit into shang mode since its main tonal center is the equivalent of the open first string, considered as do, with sol as a secondary tonal center but with shang also playing an important role as a leading note going down to phrases ending on do. This means it would not make a good prelude to the Zhi Zhao Fei in Shen Qi Mi Pu, which is in yu mode.
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3. A male pheasant about to fly (雄雉于飛 Xiong zhi yu fei)
This woodblock print, accompanying Shi Jing #33 雄雉 Cock-Pheasant (Waley; see details), is copied from the Revised illustrations of Plants and Animals in the Mao [edition of the Book of] Poems (details)
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4. Original text
The original Yuefu Shiji text is as follows:

雉朝飛操
一曰《雉朝雊操》。

揚雄《琴清英》曰:
「《雉朝飛操》,衛女傅母之所作也。衛侯女嫁於齊太子,中道聞太子死,問傅母曰:『何如?』傅母曰:『且往當喪。』喪畢不肯歸,終之以死。傅母悔之,取女所自操琴,於塚上鼓之。忽二雉俱出墓中,傅母撫雉曰:『女果為雉耶?』言未畢,俱飛而起,忽然不見。傅母悲痛,援琴作操,故曰《雉朝飛》。」

崔豹《古今注》曰:
「《雉朝飛》者,犢沐子所作也。齊宣王時,處士泯宣,年五十無妻。出薪於野,見雉雄雌相隨而飛,意動心悲,乃仰天歎大聖在上,恩及草木鳥獸,而我獨不獲。因援琴而歌,以明自傷。其聲中絕。魏武帝時,宮人有盧女者,七歲入漢宮,學鼓琴,特異於餘妓,善為新聲,能傳此曲。」

伯牙《琴歌》曰:
「麥秀蔪兮雉朝飛,向虛壑兮背喬槐,依絕區兮臨回池。」

樂府解題》曰:
「若梁簡文帝『晨光照麥畿』,但詠雉而已。」

犢沐子
雉朝飛兮鳴相和,雌雄群游於山阿。
我獨何命兮未有家。
時將暮兮可奈何,嗟嗟暮兮可奈何。

宋·鮑照
雉朝飛,振羽翼,專場挾雌恃強力。
媒已驚,翳又逼,篙間潛彀盧矢直。
刎繡頸,碎錦臆,絕命君前無怨色。
握君手,執杯酒,意氣相傾死何有。

梁·簡文帝
晨光照麥畿,平野度春翬。
避鷹時聳角,妒壟或斜飛。
少年從遠役,有恨意多違。
不如隨蕩子,羅袂拂臣衣。

吳均
二月雉朝飛,橫行傍壟歸。
斜看水外翟,側聽嶺南翬。
躞蹀恆欲戰,耿耿恃強威。
當令君見賞,何辭碎錦衣。

唐·李白
麥隴青青三月時,白雉朝飛挾兩雌。
錦衣綺翼何離褷,犢沐採薪感之悲。
春天和,白日暖,啄食飲泉勇氣滿。
爭雄鬥死繡頸斷。
雉子斑奏急管弦,心傾美酒盡玉碗。
枯楊枯楊爾生荑,我獨七十而孤棲。
彈弦寫恨意不盡,瞑目歸黃泥。

唐·韓愈
雉之飛,於朝日。
群雌孤雄,意氣橫出。
當東而西,當啄而飛。
隨飛隨啄,群雌粥粥。
嗟我雖人,曾不如彼雉雞。
生身七十年,無一妾與妃。

張祜
朝陽隴東泛暖景,雙啄雙飛雙顧影。
硃冠錦襦聊日整,漠漠霧中如衣褧。
傷心盧女弦,        七十老翁長獨眠。
雄飛在草雌在田,衷腸結憤氣呵天。
聖人在上心不偏,翁得女妻甚可憐。
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5. Zhi Zhao Gou Cao (雉朝雊操)
42936.xxx ; "gou" means to crow, i.e., call out
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6. Cao Xun
曹勛 Cao Xun (1098 - 1174)
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7. Original preface
The original Chinese text is as follows:

此操相傳以為牧犢子年七十而無妻,見雉雙飛感之而作,豈其見雉之時而有歌?抑亦後人擬之而成操也歟。

Translation will be above.
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8. Original lyrics
Han Yu's poem without the translation is above; see also in YFJS.
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