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10. Yueshang Melody
Can also be pronounced "Yuechang"
Standard tuning: 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 played as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 2
(or: Yuechang Cao)
Homeland of the Yueshang (Jiaozhi)? 3
As for surviving versions, several melodies on the Yueshang theme can be found in qin tablature dating from 1511 to 1840.6 These can be broadly divided in two:
Although these include several different melodies, all are attributed to the Duke of Zhou (Zhou Gong), the younger brother of the Civil King (Wu Wang), the first ruler of the Zhou dynasty (1122-249) and later regent for King Cheng (Cheng Wang), Wu Wang's son.10
According to the History of the Latter Han dynasty, during the six years that the Duke of Zhou was regent for King Cheng he acted properly and made music; the world was at peace, (so) the Yueshang sent tribute. These Yueshang are said to have been a people living in an area called Jiaozhi,12 identified as a part of or partly in what is today Vietnam: the map at right shows them in the Hanoi region during the Western Han dynasty, but it is not clear where they might have been earlier.12
The version here in Taigu Yiyin is set to lyrics also found under this title in Yuefu Shiji. The lyrics, by Han Yu (768-824) in the voice of the Duke of Zhou, are also used for the settings in handbooks dated 1539, 1585 and 1802 (see guide). Yuefu Shiji quotes two sources in its introduction to this title:
Music Records Old and New says, "The Yueshang presented a white pheasant, so Zhou Gong created a song. According to tradition it was called Yueshang Cao.14
Both stories suggest that if the Han rulers are virtuous, then all the countries around will pay homage. Peace and prosperity will ensue.
Yuefu Shiji then includes two poems of this title. First is a very brief one, which it says Qin Cao attributes to Zhou Gong himself.15
After this come the Han Yu lyrics set to music in Taigu Yiyin and in at least three later handbooks.
The melody of this title in Xilutang Qintong (1525) has no lyrics; the comment that it is "also called Autumn Waters Melody" comes under the title. Although neither this melody nor its prelude is musically related to the other Yueshang melodies, the 1525 afterword connects it to this Zhou Gong story. Versions of its jiazhong modal prelude are found elsewhere, and it is difficult to determine whether either it or the melodic prelude called Yueshang Yin was specifically created in connection with this Yueshang Cao. In addition, although published 138 years later the earliest Yueshang Cao song, it is not necessarily a later melody: Xilutang Qintong has a a number of melodies apparently copied from earlier tabalture. (There is further comment on this melody below.)
Original preface 16 (translation not finalized; compare 1525)
According to history,17 the Duke of Zhou helped King Cheng, educating him very correctly. The Southern Yueshang people from Jiaozhi said, "The skies have no evil winds or bad rain, and the seas have not been rough for three years. This must mean that the Central Kingdom has a virtuous man. Why don't we go visit him?" The Duke of Zhou gave them five double-horse chariots equipped with compasses,19 so that they would not lose their way. He wrote this melody to show that there was no place that the king's civilizing influences could not reach. See what the Sage (Confucius, in the Book of Songs, said), "They did not dare not coming to present offerings, they did not dare not coming for the king's acknowledgement."18 This can be used to think about seeing these times.
Music and lyrics (by Han Yu): One section20
Completely syllabic setting (60 notes) following the structure of the lyrics ([3+3+6] x 1, then [4+4] x 6), as follows:
(There is no singing on my two recordings currently online [further comment].
Timings: 01.04 for the recording 聽錄音 on this site, 01.25 on YouTube)
Zi Zhou zhi xian, qi jian qi qin.
Beginning with the Zhou dynasty, its difficulties, its labor.
Yi you jiang yu, si wo hou ren.
Were for having border regions, privately for my descendents.
Wo zu zai shang, si fang zai xia.
My ancestors are above, the four directions are below.
Jue lin kong wei, gan xi yi wu.
His approaching in great awe, dare play in order to insult.
Shu huang yu men, shu zhi yu tian.
What is barren at the gate, what is controlled in the fields?
Si hai ji jun, Yue Shang shi chen.
The four seas are in ruled fairly, with the Yueshang as vassals.
(Translation is not finalized; the recording here can serve as a prelude to the 1525 Yueshang melodies.)
Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
Yueshang Cao 越裳操
The title could also be pronounced "Yuechang Cao": not only can 裳 itself be pronounced "chang", but historical sources also write the name as 越常 or 越嘗, both of which would normally be pronounced Yuechang. However, Loewe uses "Yueshang" (p.323) in mentioning their presenting one white and one black pheasant to the Han court around the year 1 BCE. Perhaps there is a connection between this and the story of the Yueshang sending Zhou Gong a white pheasant.
37943.130 Yueshang says it is 古國名，故地當在今越南南部 the name of an old nationality, its former area being in what is today southern Vietnam. It then gives as its earliest reference the History of the Latter Han, which says,
9/1115 越裳 gives 越常 [Yuechang] and 越嘗 [same] as alternates and adds several more references. Elsewhere yet another reference given as 尚書大傳卷四 Folio 4 of Shangshu Dachuan, but 7654.71 says this is a fragmentary work from the Han, perhaps no earlier than History of the Latter Han.
37943.131 Yueshang Cao identifies this as lyrics in the qin melody section of Yuefu; this is discussed further above. Yuefu Shiji and Hanyu Dacidian, IX, P.1115 give no mention of Yueshang outside of the context of the Zhou Gong story. Keith Weller Taylor, The Birth of Vietnam (Berkeley, U. California Press, 1983), mentions the story on p.186. Sometimes the Yue people are called 越常 Yuechang (Yue Chang), as in the 文選 Wen Xuan poem 東京 賦 Eastern Metropolis Rhapsody by 張衡 Zhang Heng. Knechtges' translation, Vol. 1, p.178, refers to a translation by Hightower of 韓詩外傳 Han Shi Wai Zhuan.
Other 37943 越 Yue entries include Yue Song (37943.126 越歌 Yue Ge, mentioned in the Han History) and Yue Mode/Melody (37943.134 越調 Yue Diao). 越操 Yue Cao 37943.xxx.
On an internet website called Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog I read the following (Việt Thường refers to Yue Shang),
The page goes on with more detail and analysis of this story.
Tuning and mode
The 1511 Yueshang Cao uses the standard relative tuning for the qin, here considered as 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 as only this will yield notes restricted to the standard Chinese pentatonic scale, 1 2 3 5 6 . As for the mode, Taigu Yiyin does not specify this. The later songs are grouped with shang mode melodies (see Shenpin Shang Yi), and for for most of the piece it does have shang characteristics: 1 (do) as the primary tonal center and 2 (re; shang) as a secondary one. However, the closing on the diad re and sol is not characteristic of the shang mode.
Regarding my two recordings currently online (see links):
Image: Homeland of the Yueshang (Jiaozhi)?
This map, showing the Jiaozhi Commandery (交趾郡 Jiaozhi Jun) during the Western Han dynasty as being in the Red River Delta (including modern Hanoi) of Vietnam, is part of Jiaozhi Prefectural Governor's Region (交趾刺史部 Jiaozhi Cishi Bu), a map in Volume 2 of the Historical Atlas of China.
蔡邕琴操 Cai Yong's Qin Cao
Qin Cao does not survive directly. The versions in 琴苑要彔 Qinyuan Yaolu (Yuan dynasty, Beijing reprint), where the melody is called 越嘗操 Yuechang Cao (37943.xx; chang = taste), and in 琴學叢書 Qinxue Congshu (1910; see Tong Kin-Woon's Qin Fu, pp.741-2) have almost identical introductions which quote the short poem attributed to Zhou Gong. The commentary and text are included below.
The list attributed to 僧居月 Seng Juyue, which includes 越裳操 Yueshang Cao, has no related commentary.
Tracing the Yueshang Melodies
Zha Guide has three Yueshang entries:
Tracing the Yueshang Melodies (under the 1525 Yueshang Cao) gives more details.
Yueshang Cao song settings
Comment is made here about a possible attempt to put Zhou Gong's lyrics to music.
Yueshang Cao in jiazhong
#s 125-7 in 1525)
Discussed separately, this is actually a set of three related entries surviving only in Xilutang Qintong (1525; Qinqu Jicheng III/220-222).
Autumn Waters Melody (秋水弄 Qiushui Nong; also Qiu Shui Nong)
周公 Zhou Gong is also mentioned in #4 Qishan Cao and #9 Wen Wang Qu.
Jiaozhi 交趾 (also Jiao Zhi)
244.165 交趾 says it is in the Tongkin area, which is in the north of Vietnam; it has nothing about Yueshang. Keith Taylor, op.cit., p.26, says the term (in Vietnamese Giao-chi) means "intertwined feet", referring to a group sleeping custom of some peoples of the region, but not the Vietnamese. See also next.
Connection to Vietnam?
In the context of this melody, connecting this story to Vietnam is probably anachronistic. The kingdom/people referred to in the story may well have been living in southern China: during the Han dynasty there was a Kingdom of Nanyue (Southern Yue; Wiki) that included part of what are today northern Vietnam plus Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The important thing to note here is that the Yueshang are treated here as foreign peoples on China's southern border; accounts specifically tell of interpreters being needed (the mention of three interpreters may suggest such obscurity that intermediate translation was necessary), as the Yueshang speak a language not understood by the Zhou rulers.
Yueshang Cao in Qin Cao
In Yuefu Shiji the introduction quotes Qin Cao (see above) only as saying, "琴操曰，越裳操，周公所作也。" A longer version can be found elsewhere, as follows:
Not yet translated.
The original text in Gujin Yuelu is,
Poem attributed to Zhou Gong
Perhaps it is a fragment. The original is:
This was also quoted in the longer Qin Cao account above.
The original 1511 preface is as follows:
按史 According to History
It is unclear to what this refers.
This couplet, "They did not dare not coming to present offerings, they did not dare not coming for the king's acknowledgement.", comes from Yin Warriors (殷武 Yin Wu), Poem #305 of the Shi Jing. There it actually refers to two (or more) other borderland group(s), the 氐羌 Diqiang and 荆楚 Jingchu. The Diqiang (or perhaps Diqiang, or Qiang of Di) were apparently from the Gansu and Tibet regions; the Jingchu (or Jing and Chu) were people of the ancient Chu region to the south. The poem begins by saying the Yin had forced the Jingchu into submission through battle; it then reminds the Jingchu that even the Diqiang had not dared not submit to Yin. The qin melody otherwise ignores the martial aspect of this relationship with the Yueshang.
Compass (指南 zhinan)
The Chinese have been credited with inventing the compass. However, Wikipedia entries such as those on the compass and the Four Great Inventions of ancient China trace it only to the 4th century. I don't know the origin of the story (legend) that it was known in the time of Zhou Gong.
If the tuning is considered 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 then the music uses the pentatonic scale 1 2 3 5 6, with the main tonal center 1 at first, with the secondary tonal center 2; then at the end the main tonal center becomes 5.
The original lyrics without translation are as follows:
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